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Osaka-Kobe area and southern California to examine a variety of conjectures regarding time availability, accessibility, and engagement in activities. 7) Kitamura, Ryuichi, and Toon van der Hoorn. 1987. "Regularity and Irreversibility of Weekly Travel Behaviour." Transportation, Vol. 14, No. 2 (May), pp. 227-251. Kitamura and van der Hoorn use weekly travel diaries to analyze the regularity and persistence of daily activities (work, shopping, and recreation). Their study examines the "behavioral lag" between routine in activity participation and changes in socioeconomic and other factors. 8) Kuhn, Walter. 2001. "Ontologies in Support of Activities in Geographical Space." International Journal of Geographic Information Science, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 613-631. This paper seeks to represent human activities and the objects to which activities are directed as the basic units of analysis. 9) Schlich, Rober, and Kay Axhausen. 2003. "Habitual Travel Behaviour: Evidence From a Six- week Travel Diary." Transportation, Vol. 30, No. 1 (February), pp. 13-36. Schlich and Axhausen have synthesized several methods that measure habitual travel behavior. They discuss data types and methods of calculating similarity. 10) Shaw, Shih-Lung, and Dongmei Wang. 2000. "Handling Disaggregate Spatiotemporal Travel Data in GIS." GeoInformatica, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June), pp. 161-178. Frequently referred to throughout Method 3, Shaw and Wang's article provides more detail regarding data representation issues, reducing data redundancy, query types, and other relevant information. REFERENCES Amrhein, C.G. 1995. "Searching for the Elusive Aggregation Effect: Evidence from Statistical Simulations." Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 1 (January), pp. 105-119. Bloom, L.M., P.J. Pedlar, and G.E. Wragg. 1996. "Implementation of Enhanced Areal Interpolation using Map Info." Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 459-466. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 2002. Technical Methods to Support Analysis of Environmental Justice Issues. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Forkenbrock, David J., and Glen E. Weisbrod. 2001. Guidebook for Assessing the Social and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects. NCHRP Report 456. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Also available at Fotheringham, A.S., and D.W.S. Wong. 1991. "The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in Multivariate Statistical Analysis." Environment and Planning A, Vol. 23, No. 7 (July), pp. 1025-1044. 56

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Goodchild, M.F., and N.S. Lam. 1980. "Areal Interpolation: A Variant of the Traditional Spatial Problem." Geo-Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 297-312. Martin, D. 1996. "An Assessment of Surface and Zonal Models of Population." International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, Vol. 10, No. 8 (December), pp. 973-989. Miller, Harvey J. 2001. "What About People in Geographic Information Science?" Salt Lake City: University of Utah. Available at what_about_people.pdf. Mrozinski, R.D., and R.G. Cromley. 1999. "Singly- and Doubly-Constrained Methods of Areal Interpolation for Vector-Based GIS." Transactions in GIS, Vol. 3, No. 3 (June), pp. 285-301. NCRHP. 1999. Land Use Impacts of Transportation: A Guidebook. NCHRP Report 423a. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Neter, John, Michael H. Kutner, Christopher Nachtsheim, and William Wasserman. 1996. Applied Linear Regression Models. Third edition. Chicago, Illinois: McGraw-Hill College. Pipkin, John S. 1986. "Disaggregate Travel Models." In The Geography of Urban Transportation, Susan Hanson (editor). New York: The Guilford Press. Robinson, W. 1950. "Ecological Correlations and the Behavior of Individuals." American Sociological Review, Vol. 15, pp. 351-357. Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG). 2001. Documentation: Projections of Population, Housing, and Primary and Secondary Students. Available at Schonfelder, S., and K.W. Axhausen. 2003. "Activity Spaces: Measures of Social Exclusion." Transport Policy, Vol. 10, No. 4 (October), pp. 273-286. Sheeley, Jason, and David J. Forkenbrock. 2002. Washington, DC: National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Interim Report: Effective Methods for Environmental Justice Assessment. Austin, TX: URS Corporation. Tayman, J. 1996. "The Accuracy of Small-Area Population Forecasts Base on a Spatial Interaction Land Use Modeling System." Journal of the American Planning Association. Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring), pp. 85-99. U.S. DOT. 2000. Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Longhorn Pipeline System (November). Washington, DC. 57