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Attachment 1: Volunteer Fire Departments (VFDs) and Terrorism Analogs 2005 Frederick J. Cowie, Ph.D. I have spent my career in emergency management, attempting to bring federal rules, regulations and dictates down to the local, rural VFD level in order to ensure personal safety and appropriate response in rural, tribal, and frontier jurisdictions. My latest attempts have centered on making terrorism preparedness rational in areas with no known national or international targets. We have to learn how to make people care and then train them properly. I have named my current approach "VFDs and Terrorism Analogs." The process I use is to juxtapose local hazards and risks with national threats, creating a local nexus, a personal perspective. Here are the analogs. Feel free to use them in your training; I have found them to work well. I am sure there are more out there, so enlarge the list, too. We have to use the eight hazard classes and the orange book (U.S.DOT Emergency Response Guide) if we are to succeed at generating appropriate response at the rural level, which includes the vast majority of geographic areas and jurisdictions in the United States. Terrorism Local Hazards Nerve gas Organophosphates, pesticides Poison gas Chlorine, phosphine (meth labs) Blister gas (incapacitate, not kill) Acids and bases (in moderation) Terrorists Criminals, gang members, wackos Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) Pipe bombs, boiling liquid expanding vapor and rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) explosions (BLEVEs), old dynamite, old ordnance, black powder Incendiary grenades Phosphorous, magnesium, flammable solids Jet fuel in planes Gas, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas Biowarfare Staph, strep, flu, virus, salmonella Dirty bombs X-ray and diagnostic radiation sources To find recent presentations, Google (with quotation marks) "Fred Cowie" Frederick J. (Fred) Cowie, Ph.D. Montana Mailing Address: Montana UPS/FedEx E-mail: Fred Cowie Street Address: Phone: (24 hr cell) 406-431-3531 P.O. Box 6214 Fred Cowie (Send: Website: Helena, MT 59604 SIGNATURE NOT NEEDED) 1716 8th Avenue Helena, MT 59601 At-1