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Chapter 4: Steps of Customer-Driven Benchmarking Other Software Design and Development If data you require for benchmarking comes from a variety of sources and databases, you may wish to develop interfaces to transfer data into a benchmarking data repository. Among the interfaces you might need to develop are the following: Maintenance management system interface, Roadway feature inventory database, GIS database interface, RWIS data interface, Pavement management system interface, and Bridge management system interface. Data Entry and Communications Technology It is possible that with the rapid growth of wireless technology, you might want to support remote data entry into pen-based computers or laptops. Linkages between the database and remote data-entry devices will need to be established. If you decide to use field data collection devices and software for data collection--pen-based computers, voice recognition, bar coding, global positioning system receivers, or digital maps-- you will need to design and program the user interface, the data entry procedures, and the data transfer procedures accordingly. STEP 3. MEASURE PERFORMANCE The third step of customer-driven benchmarking involves measuring performance. This entails collecting data on outcomes, resources, hardship factors, and outputs. Collecting and Recording Data You will measure performance at the appropriate level of the organization in accordance with your data collection plan. Collecting and recording data entails the following: 124

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Transferring related data needed for benchmarking into the database, Taking various types of measurements and entering them into the benchmarking database, Calculating any measures that are a function of the related data, and Performing quality checks on the measurement and related data. Data collection procedures may involve surveying customers, sampling roadway sections, conducting condition assessments, and retrieving data from management systems. Regardless of whether the partnership is using electronic databases or sharing data electronically, the information needs to be verified, checked, and shared among partners. Each of the benchmarking partners will need to complete Worksheets 14, 15, 16, and 17 and submit them to each of the other partners in the partnership within the agreed-upon time frame. These worksheets contain the measures for the outcomes, resources, hardship factors, and outputs. These measures will be used for the performance comparisons. 125

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Chapter 4: Steps of Customer-Driven Benchmarking Outcomes The purpose of Worksheet 14 is to record, for each outcome measure, the observed outcomes for each subunit of the benchmarking partner. At the top of the page, enter The name of the product or service being benchmarked, The name of the benchmarking partner organization, An identification code for the benchmarking partner, The organizational level of the benchmarking units that participated in the benchmarking activity, The number of benchmarking units, The benchmarking agreement number, and The time period over which performance is measured. In the left two columns, number and list the name of each benchmarking unit of the benchmarking partner. Place the code and name of each outcome measure in each of the column headings to the right. Code the outcome measures as OC1, OC2, OC3, etc. For each subunit, fill in the measurement that was taken for each outcome measure (e.g., for OC1, OC2, OC3, etc.). USE MORE THAN ONE WORKSHEET IF NECESSARY. 126

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WORKSHEET 14. BENCHMARKING RESULTS--OUTCOME MEASURES Product/Service: Smooth Pavement____ Name of Partner: Department of Transportation Identification Code: 00031 Organizational Level of Benchmarking Units : County No. of Units: 13 Benchmarking Agreement # : 1234567 Period of Performance: From: 11-01-01 To: 10-15-02 OUTCOME MEASURES OC 1 OC 2 OC 3 OC 4 OC 5 NAME OF NO. Customer BENCHMARKING UNIT Satisfact. IRI Rating 1. Jefferson 75 4.1 2. Polk 83 4.0 3. Washington 160 2.9 4. Hamilton 139 3.1 5. Adams 129 3.2 6. Roosevelt 112 3.5 7. Truman 82 4.0 8. Clinton 98 3.8 9. Jackson 181 2.8 10. Eisenhower 70 4.2 11. Lincoln 126 3.3 12. Nixon 141 3.0 13. Buchanan 110 3.7 127

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Chapter 4: Steps of Customer-Driven Benchmarking Resources The purpose of Worksheet 15 is to record for each resource measure the observed resource usage of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. At the top of the page, enter The name of the product or service being benchmarked, The name of the organization that is a benchmarking partner, The identification code for the benchmarking partner, The organizational level of the subunits that participated in the benchmarking activity, The number of benchmarking subunits, The benchmarking agreement number, and Time period over which performance is measured. In the left two columns, number and list the name of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. Put the code and name of each resource measure in each of the column headings to the right. Code the resource measures as follows: R1, R2, R3, etc. The benchmarking partner will need to fill out the remainder of the worksheet or provide the data. For each subunit, fill in the measurement that was taken for each resource measure (e.g., for R1, R2, R3, etc.). The measurement should be consistent with the relevant summary statistic (e.g., total cost for each county over the time period from January through December). USE MORE THAN ONE WORKSHEET IF NECESSARY. 128

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WORKSHEET 15. BENCHMARKING RESULTS--RESOURCE MEASURES Product/Service: Smooth Pavement Name of Partner: Department of Transportation Identification Code: 00031 Organizational Level of Benchmarking Units: County No. of Units: 13 Benchmarking Agreement # : 1234567 Period of Performance: From: 11-01-01 To: 10-15-02 RESOURCE MEASURES NAME OF (Cost in Thousands of $) NO. BENCHMARKING UNIT R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Maint. Contract Total 1. Jefferson 456 33,700 34,156 2. Polk 691 25,350 26,041 3. Washington 1,210 28,740 29,950 4. Hamilton 631 24,796 25,427 5. Adams 1,100 22,330 23,430 6. Roosevelt 490 20,790 21,280 7. Truman 3,475 131,600 135,075 8. Clinton 675 12,260 12,935 9. Jackson 1,517 29,000 30,517 10. Eisenhower 897 13,100 13,997 11. Lincoln 1,400 9,473 10,873 12. Nixon 859 20,600 21,459 13. Buchanan 1,263 18,429 19,692 129

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Chapter 4: Steps of Customer-Driven Benchmarking Hardship Factors The purpose of Worksheet 16 is to record for each hardship measure the observed resource usage of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. At the top of the page, enter The name of the organization that is a benchmarking partner, The identification code for the benchmarking partner, The organizational level of the subunits that participated in the benchmarking activity, The number of benchmarking subunits, The benchmarking agreement number, and Time period over which performance is measured. In the left two columns, number and list the name of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. Put the code and name of each hardship measure in each of the column headings to the right. Code the hardship measures as follows: H1, H2, H3, etc. The benchmarking partner will need to fill out the remainder of the worksheet or provide the data. For each subunit, fill in the measurement that was taken for each hardship measure (e.g., for H1, H2, H3, etc.). The measurement should be consistent with the relevant summary statistic (e.g., mean daily high temperature for each county over the time period from January through December). USE MORE THAN ONE WORKSHEET IF NECESSARY. 130

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WORKSHEET 16. BENCHMARKING RESULTS--HARDSHIP (UNCONTROLLABLE) FACTORS Product/Service: Smooth Pavement Name of Partner: Department of Transportation Identification Code: 00031 Organizational Level of Benchmarking Units: County No. of Units: 13 Benchmarking Agreement # : 1234567 Period of Performance: From: 11-01-01 To: 10-15-02 HARDSHIP MEASURES H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 NAME OF Liquid NO. Degree BENCHMARKING UNIT ADT Equiv Days Precip. 1. Jefferson 401 1,539 29.1 2. Polk 275 1,819 28.2 3. Washington 159 1,654 26.3 4. Hamilton 310 1,679 31.1 5. Adams 950 1,455 27.9 6. Roosevelt 600 1,500 23.5 7. Truman 1,817 1,009 26.7 8. Clinton 851 1,103 34.2 9. Jackson 1,310 731 36.7 10. Eisenhower 729 761 31.0 11. Lincoln 557 1,216 29.8 12. Nixon 392 1,310 24.0 13. Buchanan 992 712 21.1 131

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Chapter 4: Steps of Customer-Driven Benchmarking Outputs The purpose of Worksheet 17 is to record for each output measure the observed output of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. At the top of the page, enter The name of the organization that is a benchmarking partner, The identification code for the benchmarking partner, The organizational level of the subunits that participated in the benchmarking activity, The number of benchmarking subunits, The benchmarking agreement number, and Time period over which performance is measured. In the left two columns, number and list the name of each subunit of the benchmarking partner. Put the code and name of each output measure in each of the column headings to the right. Code the output measures as follows: OP1, OP2, OP3, etc. The benchmarking partner should complete the remainder of the worksheet. For each subunit, fill in the measurement that was taken for each resource measure (e.g., for OP1, OP2, OP3, etc.). The measurement should be consistent with the relevant summary statistic (e.g., total cost for each county over the time period from January through December). USE MORE THAN ONE WORKSHEET IF NECESSARY. 132

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WORKSHEET 17. BENCHMARKING RESULTS--OUTPUT MEASURES Product/Service: Smooth Pavement Name of Partner: Department of Transportation Identification Code: 00031 Organizational Level of Benchmarking Units : County No. of Units: 13 Benchmarking Agreement # : 1234567 Period of Performance: From: 11-01-01 To: 10-15-02 OUTPUT MEASURES OP 1 OP 2 OP 3 OP 4 OP 5 NAME OF Maint. NO. Contract Total BENCHMARKING UNIT Lane Miles Miles Miles 1. Jefferson 190 371 561 2. Polk 57 709 428 3. Washington 130 250 380 4. Hamilton 199 679 878 5. Adams 410 412 822 6. Roosevelt 165 810 975 7. Truman 1,400 390 1,790 8. Clinton 390 401 791 9. Jackson 195 318 513 10. Eisenhower 410 527 937 11. Lincoln 851 755 1,606 12. Nixon 417 498 915 13. Buchanan 537 611 1,148 133