Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 186


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 185
APPENDIX B: CATALOG OF BENCHMARKING MEASURES This appendix provides a catalog of outcome and output measures that can be used for benchmarking. The measures presented focus on those that are important from the standpoint of the customer, but other useful measures are also offered. Measures are organized by type of maintenance element (e.g., pavements, bridges) and then by attribute (e.g., smoothness, safety, and aesthetics). In addition, for each measure information is provided on the unit of measure, whether the measure is commonly recognized (based on the consensus reached at the National Workshop on Commonly Recognized Measures for Maintenance), repeatability, the cost of collecting the measure, and other issues that may be important. The catalog of benchmarking measures covers the following maintenance elements: Pavements; Shoulders; Bridges; Signs, striping, and markings; Safety features; Ice and snow control; Roadside vegetation; Drainage; Litter removal; Rest areas; Signals; and Other electronic devices. Note that many states have developed rating systems for Levels of Service (LOS). In many cases, rating scales are not the LOS the customer experiences, but instead are condition ratings. The table below attempts to make this clear by referring to "Levels of Service" as "Level of Service Condition Ratings" unless otherwise explicitly stated. 191

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures PAVEMENTS Pavements experience a wide variety of different deterioration that affects their appearance, riding experience, and structural soundness. Table B-1 presents pavement condition measures that have an important direct or indirect relationship to the customer. Table B-1. Condition Measures for Pavements Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Pavement International Inches/mile Yes Well-established Low incremental smoothness Roughness or m/km procedures and cost for agencies (roughness) Index (IRI) equipment that result already collecting in repeatable, reliable, IRI; moderate to and reasonably high cost of new accurate results data collection effort National Quality 1 5 Survey Standard NQI survey Low cost to use NQI Initiative (NQI) or response question on question; not accurate survey results; other survey scale pavement for jurisdictions lower moderate to high question smoothness than state level, cost to develop and asking customer unless separate administer your own satisfaction survey administered survey including regarding pavement question on smoothness pavement smoothness Pavement Number of potholes Number per Potholes are easily High cost to develop smoothness of specified size per unit distance observed, but the a comprehensive, (potholes) unit distance number per unit accurate pothole distance can be count. difficult to count. The number of potholes can change rapidly as new ones appear and existing ones are repaired. Pavement Number of blowups Number per Blowups are easily Seasonal problem smoothness, per unit distance unit distance observed and easy to that requires accessibility count. Blowups occur moderate (blowups) during the freeze-thaw measurement cost. transition, so new Motorist call-ins ones can suddenly could reduce data emerge and affect the collection costs. reliability of the count. Safety Rutting Inches Yes Well-established, Low cost to do for (danger of reliable, repeatable, sample sections or hydroplaning) and reasonably if data already accurate exists; high cost to measurements using obtain a ruler comprehensive coverage if data doesn't exist (continued on next page) 192

OCR for page 185
Table B-1. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Safety Friction Yes Well-established Low incremental (skid equipment and cost if agency resistance) procedures for already routinely reliable, repeatable, measures; high cost and reasonably for new accurate measurement measures program Preservation Faulting Inches Repeatable, reliable, Low cost to do for attributes and reasonably sample sections or (protection accurate measures if data already against water obtained using a ruler exists; high cost to damage to obtain structure due comprehensive to faults) coverage if data doesn't exist Preservation Extent and severity Percent of Challenge in Much lower cost to attributes of different types of area maintaining do for sample (appearance of cracking: covered or consistency among sections in deterioration, length of raters; automated comparison to raveling, water alligator cracks and distress identification comprehensive infiltration) longitudinal rating of technology not highly network coverage transverse severity on a accurate scale Overall Health Index Some type Requires construction Low to high cost to pavement of index, say of index reflecting key develop and apply condition from 0100 pavement attributes; index, depending each attribute can be upon the availability measured with varying of data to calculate degrees of reliability index components Overall Visual level of Rating scale Often visual rating Mainly useful for level of service condition of A, B, C, scales combine more communicating to service rating D, or E than one attribute and policy makers and so it is difficult to general public. portray and to isolate condition of different attributes SHOULDERS Shoulders can deteriorate in a number of ways. The shoulder and pavement edge can separate, letting in moisture that can lead to premature deterioration of the pavement and even structural failure. Shoulder drop-off or a significant rise in the edge can emerge over time and create safety hazards. Gravel shoulders lose their shape and require reshaping. Table B-2 presents measures of shoulder condition. 193

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures Table B-2. Potential Condition Measures for Shoulders Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Preservation Distance Inches Well-established, reliable, Low cost to attributes between edge repeatable, and reasonably obtain data if in a (shoulder and shoulder accurate measurements Pavement separation) using a ruler Management System or similar database Safety Edge drop off Inches Yes, edge Protocol for commonly Low cost to feature variance recognized measure needs obtain data if in a to be established. Pavement However, Management well-established, reliable, System or similar repeatable, and reasonably database accurate measurements using a ruler are available. Safety Edge rise Inches Yes, edge Protocol for commonly Low cost to feature variance recognized measure needs obtain data if in a to be established. Pavement However, well- Management established, reliable, System or similar repeatable, and reasonably database accurate measurements using a ruler are available. Safety and Gravel Lack of agreed-upon, Low cost to preservation bunched or repeatable, reliable, obtain data if in a attributes spread accurate measure Pavement (support for disbursed Management vehicles on System or similar shoulder and database preservation of shoulder shape) Preservation, Survey 1 5 Repeatable, and reliable, if Moderate to high safety, and question response rigorous sampling and cost to develop aesthetics asking scale administration procedures and administer customer used; precision and new survey; less satisfaction statistical confidence costly to add this regarding depends on sample size question to shoulder and stratification existing survey condition instrument Visual Scale of Often visual rating scales level of service A, B, C, D, combine more than one condition rating and E attribute and so it is difficult to portray and to isolate condition of different attributes 194

OCR for page 185
BRIDGES There have long been standardized measures of bridge condition based on the condition ratings in the National Bridge Investment Analysis System (NBIAS).1 The condition ratings in the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) consist of ratings for substructure; deck; superstructure; and channel under the bridge, if one exists. There are also inventory and operating ratings. Certain ratings together signify that a bridge is structurally deficient, and other ratings signify a bridge is functionally obsolete. For years, FHWA has supported a bridge inspection training program that enables inspectors to fairly consistently and accurately rate the condition of bridges and, therefore, to rate the extent to which they are structurally deficient or obsolete. These condition ratings and determinations of structural deficiency and functional obsolescence are potentially useful for benchmarking. More recently, states have established a more detailed, widely used, and widely recognized set of bridge condition measures known as condition states corresponding to "commonly recognized (CoRe) structural elements" of bridges. There are commonly recognized measures of bridge condition for nearly 100 elements that pertain to different parts of structures made of virtually every important type of bridge configuration and material found throughout the United States. Under the CoRe system, condition ratings have been carefully defined to be consistent with alternative actions appropriate to each condition state. In addition, eight smart flags that address such factors as settlement and fatigue have been defined under the CoRe definitions. 2 Condition states have been carefully defined by bridge managers, structural engineers, and inspection experts so that the condition states are consistent with a set of alternative actions that are reasonable options for addressing a particular condition state. The actual actions an agency takes depend upon many factors, including the costs of each action. Condition states were originally defined to facilitate the development of probabilistic deterioration models for use in the Pontis, BRIDGIT, and other bridge management systems. A large number of states have participated in the development of the commonly recognized elements. Also, software has been developed that automatically maps bridge CoRe condition states to condition ratings used in the NBI. Consequently, not only do the vast majority of state bridge programs use the CoRe condition states, but also FHWA fully supports their use and has funded the development of the bridge inspection training program that teaches inspectors how to rate bridges using the CoRe system. 1 Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation's Bridges, FHWA, U.S. DOT, December 1988 (update of 1979 Guide). 2 AASHTO Guide for Commonly Recognized (CoRe) Structural Elements, AASHTO, Washington DC, 1998. 195

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures Table B-3 provides bridge condition measures potentially useful for customer-driven benchmarking. Table B-3. Bridge Condition Ratings Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Preservation Condition ratings Discrete scale Long-established Condition data attributes of channel, of 09 for bridge inspection easily obtained (condition) approach, condition and rating from NBI substructure, ratings procedures have database; low deck, and been developed cost superstructure; that are reliable, also inventory and repeatable, and operating rating as fairly accurate measures of load capacity Preservation Classification of Binary Derived from NBI Determination of attributes bridges according measure of condition ratings structural (condition) and to whether they whether and therefore well deficiency and functionality are structurally structurally established, functional deficient or deficient and repeatable, and obsolescence functionally whether reliable easily obtained obsolete functionally from NBI obsolete database; low cost Preservation CoRe condition Discrete scale Adopted by the Well-established, Low cost to use attributes ratings for nearly of 1 to 3, 4, or AASHTO reliable, repeatable, bridge condition (condition) 100 bridge 5, depending Bridge and reasonably ratings in bridge elements upon the Subcommittee accurate inventory and (e.g., deck, piers, element in 1995 measurements condition railings, truss, and based on well- databases girders) defined bridge inspection procedures Preservation Customer 15 scale Standard NQI Low cost to use (condition) satisfaction survey question; not NQI survey accurate for results; jurisdictions lower moderate to high than the state level, cost to develop unless separate and administer survey administered your own survey that includes NQI or similar type of question Preservation Visual rating Scale of A, Often visual rating (condition) level of service B, C, D, and scales combine E more than one attribute, and so it is difficult to portray and to isolate condition of different attributes 196

OCR for page 185
SIGNS, STRIPING, AND MARKINGS An important attribute of signs, markers, and striping that is critically important to drivers is nighttime visibility. During the daytime, signs still need to be legible. If a sign is knocked down, missing, or blocked by vegetation, it can pose a serious safety hazard. Pavement markers or striping that wears out completely, comes loose, or is not visible in rain is also a problem. Table B-4 presents customer-driven condition measures for signs, striping, and markers. Table B-4. Condition Measures for Signs, Striping, and Markers Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Nighttime Retroreflectivity Candelas per Yes Protocol for commonly Measurements visibility lux per recognized measure of retroreflectivity square meter, needs to be of signs, striping, or candelas established. However, or markers, per foot- well-established, either standing candle per reliable, and still or while in square foot repeatable procedures motion, are for measuring moderate to high reflectivity of signs, cost. The labor striping, and markers costs for static exist for static measurements measurements using for a large a handheld portion of the retroreflectometer; network are measures taken from high, and so are a van at highway initial vehicle and speeds have not yet equipment costs. proven to be reliable, repeatable, and accurate Visual rating scale This measure is fairly Cost is a of nighttime reliable, repeatable, function of the visibility and accurate, number of signs provided there is to be rated and rigorous training and the miles retraining of raters covered. Generally low to moderate cost using windshield survey (continued on next page) 197

OCR for page 185
Table B-4. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Legibility Visual rating scale Yes Protocol for commonly Cost is a of signs of daytime recognized measure function of the legibility needs to be number of signs established. to be rated and Measurements are the miles expected to be fairly covered. reliable, repeatable, Generally low to and accurate, moderate cost provided there is using windshield rigorous training and survey retraining of raters. Sign Percent of signs This measure is fairly Cost is a blocked blocked by reliable, repeatable, function of the vegetation or and accurate, number of signs other obstructions provided there is to be rated and rigorous training and the miles retraining of raters. covered. Generally low to moderate cost using windshield survey Downed or Visual Downed or missing Low cost missing sign determination of signs are likely to be whether sign is detected quickly by downed or motorists or missing maintenance supervisors or crews. Systematic inspections of downed and missing signs would also be reliable, accurate, and repeatable, provided inspectors know whether signs are supposed to be at each location. Day Composite rating Rating scale Requires training and Low cost if data condition reflecting legibility, or index retraining to achieve already available color fade, reasonably reliable, in sign inventory contrast, graffiti, accurate, repeatable and condition and damage ratings data base; otherwise, potentially high cost Physical Sign condition Individual Yes Protocol for commonly Low cost if data appearance ratings for ratings or recognized measure already available contrast, color composite needs to be in sign inventory fade, legibility, and rating scale established. Requires and condition post condition; training and retraining data base; Pavement to achieve reasonably otherwise, marking condition reliable, accurate, potentially high rating for contrast repeatable ratings cost and presence (continued on next page)

OCR for page 185
Table B-4. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Deterioration Age of sign Years Reliable, accurate, Low cost if and repeatable if age database of each sign is already exists. accurately entered May be into sign inventory infeasible to database; however, determine age if age is not necessarily age is not a good proxy for known. deterioration. Many old signs can remain in good condition. Response Mean time to Minutes and Time from initial report Low cost to time replace or repair fraction to repair or extract time to fix in response to thereof replacement is almost problem from log report of always recorded in a books damaged, log book and is quite downed, or accurate missing sign Missing Visual inspection Percent Yes Protocol for commonly Low to moderate striping and of percent of recognized measure cost to estimate markers markers or needs to be using windshield percent of striping established. This survey missing measure is expected to be fairly reliable, repeatable, and accurate, provided there is rigorous training and retraining of raters. Visibility Customer 15 scale Yes Standard NQI survey Low cost to use of signs, satisfaction question; not accurate NQI survey striping, and for jurisdictions lower results; markers than state level, moderate to high unless separate cost to develop survey administered and administer your own survey that includes NQI or similar question SAFETY FEATURES Many different types of appurtenances have been installed in roadways to protect motorists from accidents and to reduce the seriousness of crashes. These features include guardrails, medians, crash attenuators, and truck escape ramps. Table B-5 presents condition measures for safety features. 199

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures Table B-5. Condition Measures for Safety Features Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Guardrail Percent Percent of Yes Protocol for Requires functionality functioning as components commonly inspectors to intended functioning as recognized determine intended measure needs to whether guardrail be established. components are This measure is functioning expected to be according to fairly reliable, specifications. repeatable, and Low to moderate accurate, provided cost if part of there is rigorous other inspection training and activities retraining of rater. Guardrail Percent Percent of Yes Protocol for Requires end-treatment functioning as components commonly inspectors to functionality intended functioning as recognized determine intended measure needs to whether be established. components of This measure is end-treatments expected to be are functioning fairly reliable, according to repeatable, and specifications. accurate, provided Low to moderate there is rigorous cost if part of training and other inspection retraining of rater. activities Guardrail Percent damaged Percent of This measure is Low to moderate condition so as to require guardrail fairly reliable, cost if part of repair, percent length in each repeatable, and other inspection requiring condition accurate provided activities replacement, and state there is rigorous percent requiring training and no action retraining of raters Guardrail Percent of Percent of This measure is Low to moderate appearance guardrail having guardrail fairly reliable, cost if part of different visual length in each repeatable, and other inspection appearance condition accurate provided activities ratings of 1, 2, 3, 4 state there is rigorous or 5 training and retraining of raters. Guardrail Percent of Percent of This measure is Low to moderate obsolescence guardrail that is guardrail fairly reliable, cost if part of functionally length that is repeatable, and other inspection obsolete and functionally accurate provided activities requires obsolete there is rigorous replacement training and retraining of raters. (continued on next page) 200

OCR for page 185
Table B-5. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Median Percent damaged Percent of This measure is Low to moderate (Jersey barrier) so as to require guardrail fairly reliable, cost if part of condition repair, percent length in each repeatable, and other inspection (crash requiring condition accurate provided activities protection) replacement, and state there is rigorous percent requiring training and no action retraining of raters. Attenuator Percent Percent of Yes Protocol for Moderate to high functionality functioning as components commonly cost; requires Intended functioning as recognized inspectors to intended measure needs to determine be established. whether each This measure is component is expected to be functioning fairly reliable, according to repeatable, and specifications accurate provided there is rigorous training and retraining of raters. Crash Damaged or Yes or no This measure is Low to moderate attenuator undamaged fairly reliable, cost if part of condition repeatable, and other inspection (crash accurate provided activities protection) there is rigorous training and retraining of raters. Safety Customer 15 Scale Yes Standard NQI Low cost to use (crash satisfaction survey question; NQI survey protection) regarding safety not accurate for results; moderate features (crash jurisdictions lower to high cost to barriers and than state level, develop and attenuators) unless separate administer your survey own survey that administered includes NQI or similar question ICE AND SNOW CONTROL In the northern-tier states and Canada, as well as in the mountains of the southern-tier states, freezing and subfreezing conditions are common during the winter months and, in many places, during the spring and fall. A major challenge of government jurisdictions in these areas is to prevent the build-up of ice and snow and, if there is significant snowfall, to remove the snow as quickly as possible to keep roads safe and open to traffic. In addition, there is the need to conduct clean-up operations such as the sweeping up of abrasives (e.g., sand). A key part of snow and ice control is the prevention of both (1) water pollution due to salt and other anti-icing chemicals and (2) air pollution due to dust caused by abrasives. 201

OCR for page 185
Table B-6. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized by Reliable, & Issues AASHTO? Accurate? Driver Ability to see 1 5 Needs to be Low to medium cost comfort, road edge customer incorporated into a to incorporate into safety during snow rating scale reliable, accurate, and existing survey fall repeatable survey instrument; medium instrument to high cost to include in new instrument Mobility, Ability to 1 5 Needs to be Low to medium cost accessibility, make turns at customer incorporated into a to incorporate into and crossovers rating scale reliable, accurate, and existing survey safety and repeatable survey instrument; medium intersections instrument to high cost to include in new instrument Mobility Driving speed 1 5 Needs to be Low to medium cost and during customer incorporated into a to incorporate into safety snowfall rating scale reliable, accurate, and existing survey or miles per repeatable survey instrument; medium hour by instrument to high cost to functional include in new class instrument Mobility, Bare wheel 1 5 Needs to be Low to medium cost accessibility, paths customer incorporated into a to incorporate into and rating scale reliable, accurate, and existing survey safety or percent of repeatable survey instrument; medium time there instrument to high cost to are bare include in new wheel paths, instrument by functional class Safety Slippery spots 1 5 Needs to be Low to medium cost customer incorporated into a to incorporate into rating scale reliable, accurate, and existing survey or percent of repeatable survey instrument; medium centerline instrument. Very to high cost to miles with difficult to obtain include in new slippery reliable, repeatable, instrument. Physical spots, by and accurate objective, measurements of functional physical measurement slippery costs would class be very high cost. (continued on next page) 205

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures Table B-6. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized by Reliable, & Issues AASHTO? Accurate? Mobility, Only right Percent of Plow truck operators or Low to medium cost safety, lane plowed centerline patrol supervisors may to incorporate into and driver to bare miles by be able to report this existing survey comfort pavement functional information reliably instrument; Medium class and accurately. to high cost to include in new instrument. Measurements using image processing would be very high cost. Mobility, All driving Percent of Plow operators or Low to medium cost safety, lanes plowed centerline patrol supervisors may to incorporate into driver to bare miles by be able to report this existing survey comfort pavement functional information reliably instrument; medium class and accurately. to high cost to include in new instrument. Measurements using image processing would be very high cost. Mobility, All lanes Percent of Plow operators or Low to medium cost safety, plowed full centerline patrol supervisors may to incorporate into and width miles by be able to report this existing survey driver functional information reliably instrument; medium comfort class and accurately. to high cost to include in new instrument. Measurements using image processing would be very high cost. Safety Number of Fatalities, Fatalities are quite Low cost; fatalities accidents reported accurate; reported and reported personal personal injury personal injury injury accidents do not accidents would accidents include all personal normally be included injury accidents in accident database. ROADSIDE VEGETATION Vegetation management is one of the most important functions of road maintenance. If vegetation is allowed to grow unchecked, it blocks signs, reduces sight distance at intersections, creates hazards for vehicles leaving the roadway, allows water to infiltrate the base and sub-base, causes pavement damage from roots of plants growing through shoulder edges and pavement surfaces, results in noxious weeds spreading to neighboring property, increases the likelihood of deer darting in front of vehicles, and 206

OCR for page 185
becomes unsightly. Proper vegetation maintenance provides cover for the nesting, feeding, and migration of wildlife and helps preserve habitat. In addition, vegetation management is critical for preventing erosion and facilitating drainage. Other purposes of vegetation management are for beautification and to serve as natural snow fences that prevent snow from drifting onto highways. The customers of maintenance benefit from roadside vegetation management in many different ways, which are reflected in the outcome measures that appear in Table B-7. Table B-7. Condition Measures for Roadside Vegetation Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Safety Sight distance Feet Necessary to establish Low cost to measure at at intersections convention for selected intersections; measurement; requires high cost to cover road training for reliable, network repeatable, and accurate measurements. Periodic measurements may be required because of continual growth and trimming requirements. Safety Grass height Inches Yes Protocol for commonly Low cost to measure and recognized measure for sample sections; appearance needs to be established. high cost to cover road Easy measurement to network take for reliable, repeatable, measurements; requires little training; periodic measurements may be required because of continual growth and cutting requirements. (continued on next page) 207

OCR for page 185
Table B-7. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Safety Number of signs Number Yes Protocol for commonly Low cost to count blocked by recognized measure number of signs vegetation needs to be established. blocked by vegetation Requires training for reliable, repeatable, and accurate measurements. Periodic measurements may be required because of continual growth and trimming requirements. Externalities Presence or Presence or Yes Protocol for commonly Moderate to high cost (adverse absence, area absence, (present or recognized measure to conduct accurate effects on infested, or square feet absence) needs to be established. field inspections property percent of right- or meters, Requires training for owners of-way (ROW) percent reliable, repeatable, and adjacent to infested with a accurate measurements. roads) type of noxious Periodic measurements weed may be required because of seasonal changes and continual growth and control requirements. Aesthetics Aesthetic rating 1 5 Requires training for Low cost to measure scale customer reliable, repeatable, and for selected roadway rating scale accurate measurements sections; high cost to cover road network Aesthetics Neatness of 1 5 Requires training for Low cost to measure at vegetation customer reliable, repeatable, and selected roadway rating scale accurate measurements sections; high cost to cover road network Environmental Percent of ROW Percent Requires training for Medium to high cost to protection acreage reliable, repeatable, and establish GIS database managed to accurate measurements and collect inventory enhance wildlife and condition data habitat Safety Clear zone Feet Yes Protocol for commonly Medium to high cost to distance: recognized measure establish GIS database Vertical needs to be established. and collect inventory clearance, Requires training for and condition data; Horizontal reliable, repeatable, and Low cost to measure clearance accurate measurements for selected road from edge sections; high cost to cover road network Safety Percent of Percent Requires training for Medium to high cost to centerline miles reliable, repeatable, and establish GIS database with thick trees accurate measurements and collect inventory too close to and condition data; road to provide low cost to measure at safe, clear area selected road sections; for cars running high cost to cover road off road network (continued on next page) 208

OCR for page 185
Table B-7. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Safety Percent of Percent Requires training for Medium to high cost to centerline miles reliable, repeatable, and establish GIS database with trees accurate measurements. and collect inventory overhanging Periodic measurements and condition data; travel way in may be required because Low cost to measure unsafe manner of continual growth and for selected road control requirements. sections; high cost to cover road network Aesthetics and Percent of Percent Requires training for Medium to high cost to environment median, reliable, repeatable, and establish GIS database interchanges accurate measurements. and collect inventory and ROW and condition data acreage planted with wildflowers DRAINAGE Maintaining proper drainage is critical to protect pavement structures and maximize their service life. Drainage is also important to prevent water accumulating from on roads and bridges and creating a hazardous situation. Other important functions of drainage control are to help prevent erosion, keep storm water from running off onto adjacent properties, and prevent contaminants on roads and bridges from entering surface and ground water. Table B-8 shows drainage condition measures that are of direct and indirect importance to customers. Table B-8. Drainage Condition Measures Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Safety Number of spots Spots of Difficult to measure Measurement on roads that flood flooding reliably and would be during normal accurately; may facilitated by rainfall events and have to depend in having a GIS; during 10-year part on motorist cost of data storms reports of flooding collection is relatively low Safety Customer 15 scale Reasonably Moderate to low and satisfaction rating reliable, repeatable, cost if added to mobility of drainage during and accurate if questions in storms included in a well- existing survey; designed survey moderate to high administered using cost if part of a scientific sampling new survey effort (continued on next page) 209

OCR for page 185
Table B-8. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Preservation Percent of Percent Requires some Low to moderate ditchline not training for cost to do for maintained reasonably sample road accurate, reliable, sections; high and repeatable cost to cover measurements entire network Preservation Linear feet of Linear feet Requires some Low to moderate ditchline training for cost to do for obstructed and reasonably sample road unobstructed accurate, reliable, sections; high and repeatable cost to cover measurements entire network Preservation Level of service Rating scale Requires some Low to moderate condition rating training for cost to do for of ditches reasonably sample road accurate, reliable, sections; high and repeatable cost to cover measurements entire network Preservation, Blockage of Percent of Yes Protocol for Low to moderate safety, culverts, cross each commonly cost to do for mobility drains, ditches, drainage recognized sample road curb, gutters, structure measure needs to sections; high barrier walls, be established; cost to cover catch basins, and requires training for entire network inlets reliable, repeatable, and accurate measurements Preservation, Damage of Percent of Yes Protocol for Low to moderate safety, culverts, cross each commonly cost to do for mobility drains, ditches, drainage recognized sample road curb, gutters, structure measure needs to sections; high barrier walls, be established; cost to cover catch basins, and requires training for entire network inlets reliable, repeatable, and accurate measurements Preservation Blockage for Percent of Yes Protocol for Moderate cost subsurface each commonly for sample road drainage drainage recognized sections; high structure measure needs to cost to cover be established; entire network requires training for reliable, repeatable, and accurate measurements Preservation Roadway Pass/fail Requires some Low to moderate settlement around training for cost to do for and over culverts, reasonably sample road cross drains, and accurate, reliable, sections; high storm drains and repeatable cost to cover measurements entire network (continued on next page) 210

OCR for page 185
Table B-8. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Preservation, Flow area Percent Requires some Low to moderate mobility, inhibited by training for cost to do for and debris or damage reasonably sample road safety of culverts, cross accurate, reliable, sections; high drains, and storm and repeatable cost to cover drains measurements entire network In the invert Outside or near the inlet Due to deflection or structural damage Preservation, Erosion around Visual rating Requires some Low cost to do environment culverts, cross scale of none, training for for sample road drains, and storm moderate, or reasonably sections; high drains severe accurate, reliable, cost to entire and repeatable cover network measurements Preservation Structure distress Pass/ fail Requires use of Moderate of culverts, cross closed circuit equipment costs; drains and storm television cameras; low cost to do for drains training needed for sample road reliable, repeatable, sections; high and accurate cost to cover measurement entire network Safety, Obstructed and Linear feet Requires some Low cost to do mobility unobstructed training for for sample road barrier walls, curb, reasonably sections; high and gutter and accurate, reliable, cost to entire slotted drains and repeatable cover network measurements Paved and rock Linear feet Requires some Low to moderate lined drainage training for cost for sample ditches needing reasonably road sections; repair versus total accurate, reliable, high cost to length and repeatable cover entire measurements network LITTER REMOVAL Lots of litter along the road creates an unpleasant experience for both drivers and passengers alike. Every state, locality, and turnpike authority has a significant program of litter pickup, often an adopt-a-highway program. Widely used customer-oriented outcome measures pertaining to litter removal appear in Table B-9. 211

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures Table B-9. Roadside Litter Condition Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Litter Number of pieces Pieces of litter Fairly easy to Low cost to do of litter within per 0.1 mile measure reliably for sample 6 feet of shoulder and accurately; sections; high edge per 0.1 mile requires training to cost to do for all obtain reliable, roads repeatable, and accurate measurement Litter count Needs Yes Commonly Low cost to do for definition recognized sample sections; measure requires high cost to do for definition and all roads protocol needs to be developed. Customer 15 scale Reasonably Moderate to low satisfaction rating reliable, repeatable, cost if added to of roadside litter and accurate if questions in included in well- existing survey; designed survey moderate to high administered using cost if part of a scientific sampling new survey effort REST AREAS Rest areas are one of the main places other than roads where customers encounter transportation facilities. Customers have expectations regarding parking availability; types of services offered; time to wait in line for food, restrooms, and gas; and neatness, cleanliness, odor, and absence of dog feces. Customers can be surveyed to obtain information regarding their level of satisfaction regarding each of these attributes of rest areas. Table B-10 shows potential customer-oriented outcome measures concerning rest areas. Table B-10. Potential Customer-Oriented Outcome Measures--Rest Areas Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Functionality All toilets in Yes or no Observations would working order? generally be repeatable, reliable, and accurate Toilet paper Yes or no Observations would available in all generally be repeatable, stalls? reliable, and accurate (continued on next page) 212

OCR for page 185
Table B-10. (Continued) Commonly Repeatable, Recognized Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Reliable, & by Issues Accurate? AASHTO? Odor Restrooms free Yes or no Somewhat subjective of unpleasant responses; objectivity odor? can be increased through training Outdoor areas Yes or no Somewhat subjective free of responses; objectivity unpleasant can be increased through odor? training Delay Average wait Minutes Reliable and accurate, Moderate costs to time to use provided sufficient make occasional restrooms resources devoted to observations; high observe wait time cost to make frequent observations Cleanliness Customer 15 scale Reasonably reliable, Moderate to low satisfaction repeatable, and accurate cost if added to rating of if included in well- questions in cleanliness of designed survey existing survey; rest rooms administered using moderate to high scientific sampling cost if part of a new survey effort Cleanliness Customer 15 scale Reasonably reliable, Moderate to low satisfaction repeatable, and accurate cost if added to rating of if included in well- questions in cleanliness of designed survey existing survey; outside eating administered using moderate to high areas scientific sampling cost if part of a new survey effort Neatness Customer 15 scale Reasonably reliable, Moderate to low satisfaction repeatable, and accurate cost if added to rating of if included in well- questions in neatness of designed survey existing survey; outside eating administered using moderate to high areas scientific sampling cost if part of a new survey effort Maintenance Customer rating 15 scale Reasonably reliable, Moderate to low condition of overall repeatable, and accurate cost if added to maintenance if included in well- questions in condition designed survey existing survey; administered using moderate to high scientific sampling cost if part of a new survey effort Customer 15 scale Reasonably reliable, Moderate to low satisfaction repeatable, and accurate cost if added to rating of animal if included in well- questions in sanitation designed survey existing survey; administered using moderate to high scientific sampling cost if part of a new survey effort 213

OCR for page 185
Appendix B: Catalog of Benchmarking Measures SIGNALS Traffic signals are essential to regulating traffic flow at intersections. Intersection safety depends on traffic signals functioning reliability and continually operating. However, occasionally there are traffic signal failures due to age, motor vehicle accidents, electrical outages and other reasons. From the standpoint of the customer, the average time between these failures should be as long as possible. Once a failure has been reported, road users expect signals to be repaired or replaced as quickly as possible. Table B-11 presents customer oriented performance measures for traffic signals. Table B-11. Performance Measures for Traffic Signals Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Failure rate Mean time to Years and Nearly all agencies Requires failure days keep accurate logs establishment of of signal failure and electronic potentially are able database; low to to assess mean moderate cost time to failure accurately. Response Time Mean time to Minutes Nearly all agencies Requires repair or replace keep accurate logs establishment of once failure of the time it takes electronic reported to repair or replace database; low to a signal once signal moderate cost failure is reported. OTHER ELECTRONIC DEVICES Other electronic devices are also expected to function reliably. Performance measures similar to those for traffic signals also apply to other electronic devices, as shown in Table B-12. 214

OCR for page 185
Table B-12. Condition Measures for Electronic Equipment Commonly Repeatable, Cost and Other Attribute Measure Units Recognized Reliable, & Issues by AASHTO? Accurate? Functionality Mean time to Days Most agencies keep Requires failure accurate logs of establishment of electronic electronic equipment failure database; low to and potentially are moderate cost able to assess mean time to failure accurately. Response Mean time to Minutes Most agencies keep Requires time repair once accurate logs of the establishment of reported time it takes to electronic repair electronic database; low to equipment once a moderate cost problem has been identified Legibility of All lights in signs Yes or no Easy to assess in a Low cost message working reliable, repeatable, signs and accurate manner 215