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APPENDIX E: SURVEYS ADMINISTERED BY THE STATES TO THEIR CUSTOMERS ANALYSIS OF STATE SURVEYS Numerous states have administered surveys to customers of road maintenance. This appendix is composed of a series of tables that that attempts to analyze the extent such surveys address each of the following: Activities; Products and services or other groupings of maintenance activities; Attributes of products and services; Different types of performance measures (e.g., inputs, outputs, outcomes, value added); and Whether the performance measure is focused on external or internal customers. Information from these tables can be used in defining product and service categories, identifying attributes of products and services important to customers, mapping maintenance activities to particular product and services, and determining whether a particular type of survey question is focused on customer-oriented outcomes. Arizona Arizona DOT has administered a survey that has sought customer input regarding the levels of services for different groups of maintenance activities. The measures all are outcome measures and are externally focused. ARIZONA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/Services/Group Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Type External Paved Roadway Surfaces Perceived Level of Service LOS (1-5) Outcome E (LOS); desired LOS Road Shoulders Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Roadside Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Vegetation Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS 239

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers ARIZONA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/Services/Group Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Type External Landscaping Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Drainage Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Structures Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Traffic Control and Safety Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Rest Areas Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS Snow and Ice Removal Perceived LOS; LOS (1-5) Outcome E desired LOS California Customer measures used in California are similar in some respects to those used in the Coopers & Lybrand survey done for the National Quality Review. However, many areas in which California has sought customer input pertain to maintenance services in storm and emergency conditions. Customer satisfaction is measured on a scale of 1 to 10, and the measures are all outcome measures and externally focused. CALIFORNIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Remove/clean Maintenance Response to National Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E spills, debris Disasters Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Detours of Maintenance Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E accidents/closures Response to Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) National Disasters Response to natural Maintenance Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E disasters Response to Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) National Disasters Signs about temp. Maintenance Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E hazards Response to Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) National Disasters Ice and snow Safety Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E removal Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Chain controls Safety Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) 240

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CALIFORNIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Debris removal Safety Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Safety barriers Safety Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Maintenance of Safety Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E shoulders & turnouts Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Sign visibility Safety visibility Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Pavement smooth surfaces Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Conditions Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Pavement surface traction Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Conditions Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Pavement visibility of Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Conditions pavement Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) markings Removal of old Pavement absence of old Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E markings Conditions markings Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Pothole repairs Pavement Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Conditions Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Pavement Pavement Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E resurfacing Conditions Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Traffic Flow traffic information Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Maintenance Traffic Flow timing of Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E scheduling maintenance Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) work Maintenance delay Traffic Flow delay Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Bridge Conditions approaches Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Bridge Conditions lighting Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Restroom Travel Amenities Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E maintenance at rest Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) areas Rest area grounds Travel Amenities Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E maintenance Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Travel Amenities safety and Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E lighting at rest Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) areas Landscape Visual Appeal visual Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E maintenance attractiveness Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Weed control Visual Appeal visual Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E attractiveness Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Litter removal Visual Appeal visual Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E attractiveness Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Graffiti removal Visual Appeal visual Customer 0 (extremely dissatis.)- Outcome E attractiveness Satisfaction Rating 10 (extremely satis.) Sign repair Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities 241

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers CALIFORNIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Guardrail and safety Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E repair Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Light repair Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Traffic delays due to Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E Maintenance Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Notification of road Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E closures Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Graffiti removal on Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E signs Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Graffiti removal Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E elsewhere Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Pothole repairs Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Update message: Time-Sensitive response time Preferred amount w/in 15, 30, 60 min; Preferred E Road Condition Maintenance of time for service 1 day, 3 days, 1 wk Outcome Activities Connecticut Connecticut conducted customer surveys regarding rest area maintenance. CONNECTICUT: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/Services/Group Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/External Type Rest Area Maintenance cleanliness and sanitary Y/N Outcome E adequate restroom Y/N Outcome E supplies neat and litter free Y/N Outcome E helpful personnel Y/N Outcome E 242

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Kansas Kansas DOT has administered a survey to obtain information on customer satisfaction and on how good a job the state was doing. Both general types of measures are outcomes. The Kansas survey sought reactions to attributes of maintenance, not just to product or service areas or to maintenance activities. Kansas DOT also asked customers a question about the value of services provided to its customers. KANSAS: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Products/Services/Group Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Type External Lighting At intersections and interchanges Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) At intersections and interchanges How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Debris/Litter Removal Brush and animals Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Brush and animals How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Snow Removal How Good a Job 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Maintain Pavement Markings Striping on side of road Customer Satisfaction 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Centerline and no passing stripes Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Fixing Guardrail How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Fixing Potholes How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Fixing Cracks in Road How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Pavements Smoothness of road surface Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Durability of road Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Maintaining Signs How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Reflectiveness and visibility at night Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Frequency of posted signs Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Condition of rest areas How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Frequency of roadside rest areas Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Maintaining Shoulders How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Having a shoulder along road Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) Having a paved shoulder along Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E road Satis) Roadside Mowing How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Maintaining Bridges How Good a Job 1 (VP)5 (VG) Outcome E Bridge condition Customer Satisfaction 1 (Very Dis)5 (Very Outcome E Satis) 243

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers KANSAS: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Products/Services/Group Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Type External Overall Customer Service Courtesy and helpfulness Overall Customer 1 (Very Good)5 (Very Outcome E Service Poor) Fulfill KDOT mission to meet Overall Customer 1 (Very Well)5 (Very Outcome E Kansas's needs Service poor) Keeping you informed about what Overall Customer 1 (Very Well)5 (Very Outcome E you need to know Service poor) Value of services provided by Overall Customer 1 = Good Value;2 = OK Value Added E KDOT Service Value;3 = Poor Value Kentucky The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet commissions an annual customer survey to find out customer reactions to attributes of maintenance. Customers are asked to respond by using a 1 to 5 scale. The measures pertain to outcomes. The questions are nearly identical to those in the Coopers & Lybrand survey conducted for the National Quality Review and were intended to allow the state to compare the reaction of its road users with those throughout the nation. KENTUCKY: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Overall Visual Appeal Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E (General Category) 5=Ext. Satisfied Rest Area Design Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Environmental Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Compatibility 5=Ext. Satisfied Landscaping Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Sound Barriers Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Overall Safety Items Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E (General Category) 5=Ext. Satisfied Construction Signs Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Warning Signs Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Lane Width Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Safety Barriers Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Pavement Markings Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Shoulder Width Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied 244

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KENTUCKY: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Detour Directions Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Roadway Lighting Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Wet Weather Conditions Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Overall Bridge Condition Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E (General Category) 5=Ext. Satisfied Visual Appearance Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Durability of Road Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Smooth Ride Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Travel Amenities Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E (General Category) 5=Ext. Satisfied Mileage/Destination Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Signs 5=Ext. Satisfied Service/Attraction Signs Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Number of Rest Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Areas/Plazas 5=Ext. Satisfied Variety of Rest Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Area/Plaza Services 5=Ext. Satisfied Number of Emergency Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Call Boxes 5=Ext. Satisfied Overall Pavement Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Conditions 5=Ext. Satisfied (General Conditions) Surface Appearance Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Quiet Ride Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Smooth Ride Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Durability Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Maintenance Response Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Time (General 5=Ext. Satisfied Category) Rest Area Cleaning Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Response Time 5=Ext. Satisfied Guardrail Repair Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Response Time 5=Ext. Satisfied Litter Removal Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Response Time 5=Ext. Satisfied Snow Removal Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Response Time 5=Ext. Satisfied Pavement Repairs Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E Response Time 5=Ext. Satisfied 245

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers KENTUCKY: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Overall Traffic Flow Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E (General Category) 5=Ext. Satisfied Toll Booth Delays Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Accident Clean Up Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Level of Congestion Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Construction Delays Customer Satisfaction 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; Outcome E 5=Ext. Satisfied Minnesota For some time, the Minnesota DOT (MnDOT) maintenance organization has been customer oriented. MnDOT was among the first states to categorize its maintenance activities into product and services that relate directly to the customer. The department has conducted a variety of different types of customer surveys, beginning with one that asked customers to rate the importance of each product and service area, to rate how well the department is doing regarding each product and service area, and to allocate $100 among different products and services. More recently, the department conducted a number of innovative surveying procedures that have used digital imagery to help assess customer satisfaction, customer expectations, and value added in regards to specific product and service areas, especially the snow and ice component of the MnDOT Clear Roadways and the Attractive Roadside product and service area. MINNESOTA TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure External/ Services/ Type Internal Group Clear Roadways Clear of unplanned Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome E obstructions how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff Clear Roadways Roadway clear of ice and Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome E snow how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff Clear Roadways Roadway clear of ice and Indicator for clear of ice and Hrs. to restore bare Outcome E snow snow pavement/length of storm Clear Roadways Trucks plowing as soon as Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E snow appears Clear Roadways Plowing frequency during Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E average snowfall Clear Roadways Ability to see shoulder Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E striping during snowfall Clear Roadways Ability to see road edge Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E during snow fall 246

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MINNESOTA TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure External/ Services/ Type Internal Group Clear Roadways Ability to make turns at Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E crossovers/intersections Clear Roadways Driving speed during snowfall Customer expectations Outcome E Clear Roadways Day versus night snow Customer expectations Outcome E removal expectations Clear Roadways Weekday versus weekend Customer expectations Outcome E snow removal expectations Clear Roadways Radio channels listed to for Customer expectations Outcome E weather/road info Clear Roadways Bare wheel baths Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E Clear Roadways Scattered slippery spots Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E Clear Roadways Only right lane plowed to Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E bare pavement Clear Roadways All driving lanes plowed to Customer importance and satisfaction; miles willing Outcome, E bare pavement to drive for LOS value added Clear Roadways All lanes plowed full width Customer importance and satisfaction; miles willing Outcome, E to drive for LOS value added Clear Roadways Fully cleared Importance to customer and customer satisfaction Outcome E intersections/crossovers Smooth and Availability of roadway for Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Reliable year-round use how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative Pavement allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Smooth and Roadride comfort Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Reliable how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative Pavement allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Smooth and Road reliability Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Reliable how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative Pavement allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Available Bridges Availability of bridges Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Guardrail and bridge rail Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E condition how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Pavement markings Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Roadway lighting Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Signing Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Traffic signals functioning as Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E designed how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Safety Features Attractive woods by road and Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E lack of clear space to woods how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value 247

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers MINNESOTA TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure External/ Services/ Type Internal Group Safety Features Vegetation on shoulders Willingness to pay in travel minutes and imputed Value E blocking site distance time to avoid unsafe economic value in $ added conditions Safety Features Vegetation blocking site Willingness to pay in travel minutes and imputed Value E distance at corners time to avoid unsafe economic value in $ added conditions Safety Features Vegetation blocking signs Willingness to pay in travel minutes and imputed Value E time to avoid unsafe economic value in $ added conditions Attractive Amount of roadside litter Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Roadsides how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Attractive Amount of roadside litter Litter indicator litter indicator scale of Outcome E Roadsides 110 Attractive Amount of roadside litter Willingness to pay in travel minutes and imputed Value E Roadsides time to avoid litter economic value in $ added Attractive Noxious weed control Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Roadsides how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Attractive Noxious weed control Noxious weed indicator indicator value (110) Outcome E Roadsides Attractive Vegetation control Vegetation control indicator indicator value (110) Outcome E Roadsides Attractive Vegetation height control Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Roadsides how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Attractive Vegetation by road not neat Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Roadsides how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Highway Permits/ Encroachments on Right-of- Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Regulations Way how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Highway Permits/ Accessibility of permit office Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Regulations how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Highway Permits/ Consistency of permit Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Regulations requirements how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Highway Permits/ Time to issue permits Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E Regulations how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Motorist Services Motorist info on unplanned Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E conditions how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Motorist Services Rest area attractiveness Cu Customer importance; importance (110); Outcome, E how well DOT is doing; how well DOT doing relative allocate $100 (110); $ tradeoff value Montana Montana conducted a customer survey that sought reactions to eight different groups of maintenance activities. Customers were asked to rate on a scale of 1 to 4 the current state, importance, and priority of each type of maintenance. All measures were externally focused outcome measures or measures of customer preferences. 248

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MONTANA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Type Internal/ Services/ External Group Signage 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Information 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Rest Stop 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E Maintenance importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Striping 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Debris Removal 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Winter Maintenance 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Roadsides 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) Surfaces 3 Measures: current state, Current state (14); Outcome and E importance, $ priority Importance (14); Preference Priority (14) New Hampshire A New Hampshire DOT survey of customers sought to address the relative value of different maintenance activities by asking respondents to allocate $100 dollars to each. The allocation indicates the relative value of each activity. NEW HAMPSHIRE: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure External/ Services/ Type Internal Group Research Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Paving Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Roadside Mowing Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Trash Pickup Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Roadway Signage Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Roadway Striping Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Bridge Inspection Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Value Snow & Ice Allocation Allocation of $100 Relative E Removal Value 249

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers Ohio Ohio DOT reported that it uses professional spotters of snow and ice conditions to obtain a rating scale in regards to snow and ice control. This is an external outcome measure. OHIO: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure External/ Services/ Type Internal Group Snow and Ice Professional Road Condition 10 (Excellent) to Outcome E Control Spotter Rating 1 (Poor) Pennsylvania Pennsylvania DOT has conducted external customer surveys for a number of years. Most of the questions are focused on customer satisfaction. PENNSYLVANIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Ride Quality of Outcome E Interstate Ride Quality of Outcome E Numbered Traffic Routes Interstate Ride Quality of Outcome E Secondary Roads Snow and Ice Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Removal Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent Traffic Line Painting Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent Highway Traffic Signs Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent Work Zone Warning Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Signs Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent Travel Lanes Clearly Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Identified Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent Length of Delays Customer P-F/Average/ Meets Outcome E Satisfaction Expectations/ Exceeds Expectations/ Excellent 250

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Virginia Virginia DOT conducts external customer surveys in which respondents are asked to rate customer satisfaction on a 1 to 5 scale of an outcome measure. The survey focuses on attributes of maintenance. VIRGINIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Groups Overall Visual Appeal Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Rest Area Design Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5= Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Environmental Compatibility Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5= Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Landscaping Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5= Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Sound Barriers Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Overall Safety Items Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Construction Signs Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Warning Signs Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Lane Width Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Safety Barriers Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Pavement Markings Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Shoulder Width Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Detour Directions Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Roadway Lighting Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Wet Weather Conditions Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Overall Bridge Condition Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Visual Appearance Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Durability of Road Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Smooth Ride Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Travel Amenities Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Mileage/Destination Signs Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Service/Attraction Signs Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Number of Rest Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Areas/Plazas Satisfaction Satisfied Variety of Rest Area/Plaza Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Services Satisfaction Satisfied 251

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VIRGINIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Groups Number of Emergency Call Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Boxes Satisfaction Satisfied Overall Pavement Conditions Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Conditions) Satisfaction Satisfied Surface Appearance Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Quiet Ride Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Smooth Ride Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Durability Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Maintenance Response Time Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Rest Area Cleaning Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Response Time Satisfaction Satisfied Guardrail Repair Response Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Time Satisfaction Satisfied Litter Removal Response Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Time Satisfaction Satisfied Snow Removal Response Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Time Satisfaction Satisfied Pavement Repairs Response Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Time Satisfaction Satisfied Overall Traffic Flow Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E (General Category) Satisfaction Satisfied Toll Booth Delays Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Accident Clean Up Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Level of Congestion Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Construction Delays Customer 1=Extremely Dissatisfied; 5=Extremely Outcome E Satisfaction Satisfied Pavement Smoothness and Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Pothole Repairs on Major Satisfaction Roads Pavement Smoothness and Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Pothole Repairs on Satisfaction Secondary Roads Moving and Brush Removal Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E on Major Roads Satisfaction Mowing and Brush Removal Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E on Secondary Roads Satisfaction Snow Removal and Surface Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Treatment on Major Roads Satisfaction Snow Removal and Surface Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Treatment on Secondary Satisfaction Roads Signing Around Construction Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E and Maintenance Activities Satisfaction 252

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VIRGINIA: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Groups Ditching and Shoulder Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Maintenance Satisfaction Grading on Gravel Roads Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Satisfaction Dust on Gravel Roads Near Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Houses Satisfaction Traffic Signals and Pavement Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E Markings Satisfaction Informing the Public about Customer 1 (Poor); 2 (Fair); 3 (Good); 4 (Excellent) Outcome E VDOT Activities Satisfaction Washington State Washington State DOT has administered external customer surveys to obtain input regarding perceived and desired levels of service (LOS). This input is for the department's Maintenance Accountability Process. WASHINGTON STATE: TYPES OF MEASURES IN CUSTOMER SURVEYS Activities Products/ Attributes Measure Scale Measure Internal/ Services/ Type External Group Paved Roadway Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Surfaces Road Shoulders Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Roadside Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Vegetation Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Landscaping Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Drainage Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Structures Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Traffic Control Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E and Safety Rest Areas Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Snow and Ice Perceived LOS; desired LOS LOS (15) Outcome E Removal 253

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Appendix E: Surveys Administered by the States to Their Customers IMPORTANCE OF MAINTENANCE The project team examined a number of customer surveys to assess how customers rank the relative importance of different types of maintenance. The results are as follows. IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER SURVEYS State Attributes Activity Importance Kansas Fix Potholes 1 Snow Removal 2 Maintain Lighting 3 Bridge Maintenance 4 Pavement Markings 5 Remove Debris 6 Shoulder Maintenance 8 Fix Cracks 9 Maintain Signs 7 Maintain Rest Areas 12 Roadside Mowing 11 Fix Guardrail 10 Roadside stripes 2 Roadside smoothness 7 Center stripes 1 Roadside shoulders 3 Road durability 8 Interchange lighting 4 Paved shoulders 10 Bridge conditions 5 Sign reflection 6 Sign accuracy 9 Sign location 11 Rest area frequency 13 Sign frequency 12 Kentucky Pavement conditions 1 Safety 2 Maintenance response time 3 Visual appeal 4 Traffic flow 5 Travel amenities 6 Bridge conditions 7 Rest area frequency 8 Ohio (northeastern) Roadways clear of snow and ice 1 Roadway safety items (guardrails, signals, debris) 2 Roadway lighting in working order 3 Pavement markings and signs visible 4 Smooth pavement 5 Roadside appearance 6 254