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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 99 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Embracing Change in a Changing World Case Studies Applying New Paradigms for Rural and Small Urban Transit Service Delivery

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of January 2004) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of January 2004) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA J. BARRY BARKER Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Transit Authority of River City Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MEMBERS KAREN ANTION MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT Karen Antion Consulting SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC GORDON AOYAGI E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS Montgomery County Government JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads RONALD L. BARNES DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN Central Ohio Transit Authority GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, LINDA J. BOHLINGER Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles HNTB Corp. BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority ANDREW BONDS, JR. SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University Parsons Transportation Group, Inc. JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, Landstar Logistics, Inc., Jacksonville, FL JENNIFER L. DORN HENRY L. HUNGERBEELER, Director, Missouri DOT FTA ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR. RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments Metropolitan Atlanta RTA CONSTANCE GARBER HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT York County Community Action Corp. SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and Public FRED M. GILLIAM Affairs, University of Illinois, Chicago Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of KIM R. GREEN Technology GFI GENFARE KAM MOVASSAGHI, Secretary of Transportation, Louisiana Department of Transportation and SHARON GREENE Development Sharon Greene & Associates CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JILL A. HOUGH JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT North Dakota State University DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC ROBERT H. IRWIN JOHN REBENSDORF, Vice Pres., Network and Service Planning, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE British Columbia Transit PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT CELIA G. KUPERSMITH C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and LINDA S. WATSON, General Manager, Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority, Transportation District Corpus Christi, TX PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute EX OFFICIO MEMBERS DAVID A. LEE MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Connecticut Transit SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT CLARENCE W. MARSELLA REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Denver Regional Transportation District GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of FAYE L. M. MOORE Engineering Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Authority JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON ROBERT B. FLOWERS (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commander, U.S. Army Corps of Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. Engineers DMJM+HARRIS EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Amalgamated Transit Union RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT PAUL P. SKOUTELAS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association Port Authority of Allegheny County MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT LINDA S. WATSON SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA Corpus Christi RTA JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT ALLAN RUTTER, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space MARY E. PETERS Administration FHWA JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA (Chair) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT LOUIS F. SANDERS GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, Los Angeles APTA WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association SECRETARY ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority, Corpus Christi, TX

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 99 Embracing Change in a Changing World Case Studies Applying New Paradigms for Rural and Small Urban Transit Service Delivery KFH GROUP, INC. Bethesda, MD S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 99 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project B-22A FY'99 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-08789-9 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2004101686 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2004 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $17.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Special Notice Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein project. The process for developing research problem statements and solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing project reporting. cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 4,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager S. A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor BETH HATCH, Assistant Editor ELLEN M. CHAFEE, Assistant Editor PROJECT PANEL B-22A Field of Service Configuration TARA BARTEE, Florida DOT (Chair) CINDY JOHNSON, Mobilitat, Green River, WY LEANDREW MAYBERRY, Mississippi DOT SUZANNE O'NEILL, Transit Plus, Inc., Elizabeth, CO FRED SCHMIDT, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT JEFFREY D. WEBSTER, Fresno County Rural Transit Agency, Fresno, CA MARY MARTHA CHURCHMAN, FTA Liaison Representative JOHN DOW, FTA Liaison Representative LORNA R. WILSON, FTA Liaison Representative PAMELA BOSWELL, APTA Liaison Representative PETER SHAW, TRB Liaison Representative

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This report summarizes the findings of TCRP Project B-22A. It will be of interest FOREWORD to individuals who provide public transportation in rural and small urban areas; local, By S. A. Parker regional, state, and federal planners and funders of these services; and the administra- Staff Officer tors of these programs at state departments of transportation. The findings, presented Transportation Research in the form of case studies, provide a valuable resource to professionals who may Board implement new concepts to improve public transportation in the community. In TCRP Project B-22A, the KFH Group was asked to provide case studies of how some transportation providers are addressing the opportunities and challenges of a rapidly changing rural environment. The findings summarized in this report build on research from two previous TCRP projects: B-22 and A-21. Under TCRP Project B-22, "New Paradigms for Rural and Small Urban Transit Service Delivery," the research team from the University of Arizona identified the soci- etal trends challenging rural communities and transportation providers. The study reviewed the literature on five major categories of trends: demographic, economic, social, technological, and land use. Highlights from that research appear in the March- April 2003 TR News article "The Changing Demographics of Rural America: What Are the Implications for Transportation Providers?" Under TCRP Project A-21, "Innovations to Improve the Productivity, Efficiency, and Quality of Public Transportation in Rural and Small Urban Areas," the research team of KFH Group, Inc., in association with A-M-M-A, prepared a guidebook. TCRP Report 70: Guidebook for Change and Innovation at Rural and Small Urban Transit Systems is divided into two parts: Part I addresses the culture for change and innova- tion, and Part II presents more than 40 initiatives and innovations implemented by a variety of organizations, including private nonprofit and public transit systems, regional planning agencies, state transit associations, and state departments of transportation.

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CONTENTS 1 General Overview Introduction, 1 The Case Studies, 3 5 Case Studies Advance Transit (White River Junction, Vermont), 5 COAST (Colfax, Washington), 11 Hill Country Transit District (Central Texas), 17 Capital Area Rural Transportation System (Austin, Texas), 23 27 Summary and Bibliography Summary, 27 Bibliography, 27