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14 transportation is seamless; single individuals serve as the ways to overcome institutional and technical limitations to nexus for both agencies. This seamless integration is made TIM coordination. Whether through informal traffic task possible by transportation funding of state police operations forces or cellular talk groups, the trust established among and by Thruway Authority employees serving as public safety the individuals permeates through the corresponding orga- dispatchers. nizations. Moreover, co-location strengthens these intera- San Antonio region organizations established a CMT in the gency relationships and trust. Daily face-to-face interaction 1960s to address regional transportation management issues. fosters team-building and facilitates problem identification As the importance of managing traffic incidents has increased, and resolution. the CMT has proved to be an effective mechanism for foster- The incident response teams (IRTs) in Salt Lake City exem- ing communication and coordination among responders. The plified perhaps the tightest integration between public safety CMT consists of representatives from the Metropolitan Tran- and transportation for highway incident operations. The IRTs sit Authority, the San Antonio Public Works Department, use the same CAD system as the highway patrol uses and Alamo Dome, the San Antonio Police Department, the Bexar speak with the same dispatchers over the same radio system. County Sheriff's Department, EMS providers, towing and The dispatching center also services the other DOT assets in recovery service providers, and county health agencies. the region, as well as other public safety and fire organizations. WSP and WSDOT have cooperatively developed a joint Long interaction between the responders has built a mutual operations policy statement. The purpose of this working familiarity and respect between them, which is evident in their agreement is to document the joint policy positions between face-to-face interaction on the scene of an incident. All respon- the two agencies regarding issues of mutual interest in operat- ders are comfortable with each other's missions, roles, and ing state highways. As a result, both agencies are able to make responsibilities, and all responders work well together. decisions internal to their own agencies to provide the foun- Relationships at the leadership level can also make the dation that ultimately supports information sharing between difference between successful and unsuccessful TIM part- the two agencies. nerships. Leaders also serve as champions for their agency, Minnesota DOT and state police have established multiple project, or system. TIM programs can come to depend on memoranda of understanding and guidelines since 1999 that such champions for their continued existence. The unex- lay the groundwork for coordinated TIM and interagency pected departure of a champion can leave an operation's information sharing. Early in the process of establishing program at risk. closer working relationships between transportation and law Changes in leadership often affect the relationships among enforcement in the Salt Lake City region, the senior leader- organizations. At one location with a strong working rela- ship in both departments signed a memorandum of agree- tionship throughout the years, a change in leadership helped ment between their respective agencies. This expression of reinvigorate the partnership. Through this change, both agen- commitment and support proved to be an effective tool for cies learned that support and commitment from the leader- bringing the members of each department closer together. ship has made possible both joint operations and procure- The close working relationship was evidence that the spirit ment of technology to support TIM functions. At another of the agreement was emphasized in the following years by location, when champions moved on in their careers, an senior and mid-level management in both departments, and information exchange project lost essential management sup- it has come to be regarded as a native and natural way of port. That allowed previous minor problems to escalate, doing business together. eventually leading to the project's demise. Since no heirs to the previous champions were available to step into the role, the project also suffered from a lack of effective advocacy. 4.2.2 Relationships The link between the transportation and law enforcement agencies is certainly important. However, the relationships TIM information sharing is part of the broader issue of inter- among all the public safety agencies are crucial to the opti- operability among all agencies for emergency response. As mal sharing of notification, response, and other TIM infor- illustrated in the locations identified above, an established mation. The ability to coordinate and resolve 911 calls is one regional coordination or interagency partnership framework example of critical public-safety-to-public-safety TIM infor- provided the foundation for effective TIM information sharing. mation sharing. Moreover, incentives help to foster interagency partnerships. In the case of new joint operations centers, the pooling of resources can bring an economy of scale in capital investment 4.3 TECHNOLOGY IMPLICATIONS and operational capabilities. Leveraging resources in joint cen- ters or shared information systems are politically popular. The case studies identify some limitations of capacity, Personal relationships among a handful of key staff are service availability, and cost of technologies for exchang- crucial to success. A few key individuals can make a big dif- ing information between certain transportation agencies and ference in TIM information sharing. As demonstrated in suc- their respective public safety partners. However, as is shown cessful locations, operational personnel have found innovative in the case studies, technology is capable of enhancing TIM