Click for next page ( 32


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 31
C-1 APPENDIX C CINCINNATI, OHIO, CASE STUDY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1 SUMMARY The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP A mature interagency operation is in place in Cincinnati, Project 3-63 by Mitretek Systems, Inc. The principal investi- where various types of information are regularly and rou- gators for this project are Kevin Dopart, Manager, and Ken tinely exchanged between transportation and public safety. Brooke, Principal Engineer. The other researchers on this pro- The Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management ject were Aimee Flannery (now Assistant Professor at George Information System (ARTIMIS) (see Figure 1) unites inter- Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia) and Ted Smith, both ests in three states to address traffic management in the met- Lead Engineers at Mitretek Systems. The principal authors of ropolitan area. The freeway service patrols are of particular this case study were Aimee Flannery and Ken Brooke. note, representing a public-private partnership between the The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the fol- state DOTs and CVS Pharmacies, where roadway assistance lowing individual contributors from the Cincinnati metropoli- is provided by certified mechanics who are also licensed tan area. Without their ready, willing, and enthusiastic partic- emergency medical technicians. ipation, this case study would not have been possible. Timothy D. Schoch 2 INTRODUCTION Deputy Program Manager Elaine Baker This document summarizes information collected while Supervisor assessing information sharing as facilitated by ARTIMIS in ARTIMIS the greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Partners in ARTIMIS 508 West Third Street include the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT), Cincinnati, Ohio 45202-3410 the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, the Federal Highway (513) 564-6116 Administration, the city of Cincinnati, and the Ohio-Kentucky- tim.schoch@ngc.com Indiana Regional Council of Governments (OKI). William H. Hinkle 2.1 Site Contributors Director Gregory Wenz, ENP Information collected related to information exchanges Operations Director between ARTIMIS partners was collected during site visits in Michael Bailey, ENP January 2003. Site visits provided researchers with the oppor- Technical Services Manger tunity to observe data sharing and communication between Hamilton County Department of Communications ARTIMIS partners in the context of actual operations. Tim 2377 Civic Center Drive Schoch, ARTIMIS Deputy Program Manager, hosted the site Cincinnati, Ohio 45231 visit to the ARTIMIS Operations Control Center in down- (513) 825-2170 town Cincinnati. Bill Hinkle, Director of Communications, bill.hinkle@hccc.hamilton-co.org Hamilton County Communications Center, hosted the site visit to the Hamilton County Communications Center. A drive Sergeant Neil Gilreath along was also conducted with Police Officer Mark Ziegler of Traffic Division Supervisor the Traffic Unit of the Cincinnati Police Department. Finally, Covington Police Department an interview was also conducted with Sergeant Neil Gilreath, 1929 Madison Avenue Traffic Division Supervisor of the Covington Police Depart- Covington, Kentucky 41014 ment at the ARTIMIS Operations Control Center. (859) 292-2252 ngilreath@covkypd.org 3 SHARING INFORMATION Police Officer Mark Ziegler Cincinnati Police Department, Traffic Unit 3.1 Methods Used in Practice 800 Evans Street Cincinnati, Ohio 45204 This section summarizes information-sharing activities (513) 352-2514 between ARTIMIS and its partners in the greater Cincinnati

OCR for page 31
C-2 ing 511. The service is free to landline callers and most wireless callers. Television and Radio Reports--Local television and radio stations use reports and video feeds supplied by ARTIMIS to convey traveler information to the viewing audiences. Since April 2002, all four major television net- work affiliates in the Cincinnati area have been broad- casting live closed-circuit television (CCTV) video feeds Figure 1. ARTIMIS logo. from the ARTIMIS Operations Center showing current freeway traffic situations. As part of the agreement with these television stations, ARTIMIS requires that its web- metropolitan area. The relay of information from ARTIMIS site URL (www.artimis.org) be displayed at the bottom to its partner agencies is accomplished either verbally (using of these images when re-broadcasted to increase the radio or telephone reports) or by the transfer of video to the URL's visibility in the community. On average, 25 tele- partners equipped to receive it. ARTIMIS has also distrib- vision traffic reports using ARTIMIS-supplied infor- uted many video tapes to television stations, cable television mation are made each day. In addition, traffic conditions providers, and driver's education schools. are e-mailed every 10 minutes to 10 radio stations. ARTIMIS Website--A traveler information website (www.artimis.org) is maintained by ARTIMIS that 3.1.1 ARTIMIS Public Information Services (along with a complete ARTIMIS system description) provides continuous camera image coverage of the ARTIMIS supports several traveler information services region's freeways and information about congestion and for the general public. Even though ARTIMIS is designed as construction zones. Approximately 760 updates are made a means to inform the traveling public, the information con- each day to the website. The popularity of the website is tent is designed in cooperation between transportation and evidenced by the 6 million hits per month it receives. public safety. ARTIMIS reflects the result of information Radio System--ARTIMIS is part of the new Hamilton being exchanged between the two communities. Following County 800-MHz radio system. are the system's operating components: Roadway Message Signs Information--Dynamic mes- 3.1.2 ARTIMIS Special Information Services sage signs (DMSs) are located at fixed locations prior to major freeway interchanges and at temporary locations ARTIMIS also provides several specialty services for the as needed for special events or other occurrences (see general public, public safety, and services organizations: Figure 2). They display short textual information to alert travelers to incidents ahead and to notify travelers about Freeway Service Patrol Vans--To help clear incidents alternative routes. and disabled vehicles from the traveled lanes, five ser- Highway Advisory Radio (HAR) Advisories--HAR vice patrol vans (see Figure 3) have been deployed by advisories notify travelers about major incidents and ARTIMIS in cooperation with CVS Pharmacy stores. highway construction activities. HAR advisories broad- The service vans patrol the freeway in the ARTIMIS cast 24 hours a day. jurisdiction between 6:30 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. weekdays Traveler Advisory Telephone Service (511)--The and during special events. The service patrol drivers are first of only two 511 systems in the United States that is accessible by using a single three-digit calling number from either landline or cellular telephones, this system fields on average 64,000 calls per month. The informa- tion content is updated automatically more than 1,400 times per day, providing up-to-date, route-specific infor- mation and construction information accessible by dial- Figure 2. DMS sign. Figure 3. Freeway service patrol van.

OCR for page 31
C-3 certified mechanics by the National Institute for Auto- motive Excellence (ASE) and are licensed emergency medical technicians in the jurisdictions where they patrol. The freeway service patrol vans have been loaned to other cities for major events (e.g., Thunder Over Louis- ville and the Kentucky Derby). These vans are listed as an information service because of the interaction that occurs among the service patrol drivers, the traveling public, and public safety responders. ARTIMIS Primary Radio Frequency--This radio channel is used by ARTIMIS to exchange information with freeway service patrols, aircraft, mobile probes, and police and fire agencies throughout the region. ARTIMIS Transit Radio Frequency--ARTIMIS pro- vides timely information regarding closures and major Figure 4. ARTIMIS member organizations. incidents to the Queen City Metro Authority (Metro) and Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK) through a direct radio link. OKI and the Federal Highway Administration. ARTIMIS acts ARTIMIS Transit Video Feed--ARTIMIS provides as an independent organization whose mission is to improve direct video feeds of freeway CCTV imagery to the air quality, overall safety, and motorist's travel time and is major transit agencies in the greater Cincinnati area. governed as a partnership between several agencies that encompass the greater Cincinnati area, which includes areas in the states of both Ohio and Kentucky. The partnership was 3.2 Institutional Implications formed among ODOT, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC), and OKI. ARTIMIS began limited operations in Four central themes provide foundation for traffic incident June 1995, and the current system was completed in Decem- management (TIM) endeavours in the Cincinnati metropoli- ber of 1998. tan area: There are three major components of ARTIMIS: Unique leadership at the helm of ARTIMIS to facili- Regional Traffic Management System (RTMS), tate the cooperation between ARTIMIS staff and pub- Traveler Information System (TIS), and lic safety officers, in particular with Hamilton County Freeway service patrol vans. Department of Communications; A commitment from ARTIMIS leaders to assist public These components were deployed to meet the follow- safety officers in their day-to-day duties, including acci- ing goals: dent investigation; A commitment from ARTIMIS staff and leaders to be Improve air quality, eager providers of incident information to many public Improve overall safety, and agencies to achieve the common goal of moving people Improve motorists' travel time. and goods through the system quickly without sacrific- ing safety; and ARTIMIS is made possible by joint funding provided by The ability to work cooperatively on TIM operations to ODOT and KYTC. ODOT contributes 75 percent of system- ensure the safety and mobility of travellers in the region, wide costs, and KYTC provides the remaining 25 percent. as well as responders. The deployment of various monitoring sensor equipment is paid for by each state independently. The freeway service patrol vans are funded through a public-private joint venture 3.2.1 Institutional Framework of ARTIMIS with CVS Pharmacy stores. ODOT pays for 51 percent of three service patrol vans, and KYTC pays for 51 percent of This section describes the ARTIMIS system, specifically two service patrol vans. The remaining costs for all five ser- the network coverage of ARTIMIS, the services provided by vice patrol vans are paid for by CVS Pharmacy stores. ARTIMIS, the institutional agreements that support ARTIMIS, and the various public safety partners that currently receive information and support from ARTIMIS regarding traffic 3.2.2 Coverage Area of ARTIMIS incidents (see Figure 4). The ARTIMIS program is funded by ODOT and the Ken- The ARTIMIS coverage area is split into two areas: the tucky Transportation Cabinet and operates in cooperation with North Area and the South Area. Both areas primarily consist

OCR for page 31
C-4 of Interstates and freeways. The North Area consists of the it was suggested that the same sort of CCTV coverage be following roadways: extended to cover the response and approach routes to those incidents. It would of course be an obvious enhancement to also provide coverage on demand from public safety for any Portions of I-275 in Ohio and Kentucky; response planned to traverse the ARTIMIS CCTV coverage Portions of I-75, I-74, and I-71 in Ohio; area. A related suggestion extended the concept to include State Route 562 in Ohio; the emergency rooms at local hospitals because the addi- Ronald Reagan Highway; and tional visual information would help prepare emergency room US 50 from downtown Cincinnati to I-275 in Dearborn staff for incoming trauma cases. County, Indiana. And finally, it was suggested that the changeable message sign (CMS) network be extended to include more major arte- The South Area consists of the following roadways: rials. This extension appears to be a logical enhancement that might help a great deal in managing traffic approaching the freeway system. Portions of I-275 in Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana; I-71, I-75, and I-471 in Kentucky; and Portions of I-71 and I-75 in Ohio. 3.3 Technical Implications In all, 88 miles of freeway are monitored by ARTIMIS ARTIMIS consists of several components: (as of April 21, 2002). The system uses cameras and sen- sors to continuously monitor traffic conditions 24 hours a CCTVs--More than 80 CCTVs have been deployed in day, 7 days a week. Information is routed by fiber-optic cable the greater Cincinnati area. Three types of cameras have or via dial-up telephone line to the control center, where the been deployed: full-motion color video, slow-scan color imagery and data are analyzed to determine the occurrences of video, and fixed black-and-white cameras. The majority traffic incidents. Various response plans are then activated as of cameras are full-motion color video, but in some areas needed. where poor lighting exists (such as tunnels), fixed black- and-white cameras have been installed. Changeable Message Signs (CMSs)--Forty CMSs are 3.2.3 Issues and Barriers located before the major freeway interchanges to notify motorists of traffic problems and potential alternate The few issues mentioned to the investigator all related to routes. There are also three portable CMSs that can be desired improvements to ARTIMIS. It was unusual not to hear towed to locations where a specific, short-term need about problems with current systems, policies, or operations. exists. Reportedly, there are no traffic management components Highway Advisory Radio (HARs)--ARTIMIS broad- in the mass evacuation plans for the greater Cincinnati area. casts traffic advisories and construction information While it would be somewhat surprising for the topic to be on broadcast radio 530 AM (from fixed locations) and completely missing from the mass evacuation plans, it would 580 AM (from temporary locations), which may be not be surprising for the plans to lack an explicitly labeled received by standard car radios. Advisories are available section on traffic management. It would also be understand- during operational hours, and construction information able for transportation agencies to desire coverage in these is available 24 hours a day. plans, for it would provide the agencies with the opportunity Vehicle Detection--Eleven hundred vehicle detection to become involved in that aspect of emergency management. locations are maintained by ARTIMIS (as of April 21, Mention was made that there is a need to improve the 2002). Vehicle count, occupancy, and speed informa- emergency medical services (EMS) communications sys- tion is collected at each of these locations using one of tems in the area and to include the ARTIMIS community in three technologies: radar, induction loop detectors, and their upgrade. This would presumably cover radio systems video imaging. that are used by EMS response agencies in the greater Cincin- Reference and Ramp Markers--To assist travelers nati metropolitan area. Such communications would typically and emergency responders in locating incidents or those be used to enable EMS vehicles to communicate with each in need of assistance, reference and ramp markers have other and with emergency departments of local hospitals. been deployed on most of the freeway systems in the A logical extension to the current transportation/public greater Cincinnati area. Blue and white signs have been safety interaction was noted on one suggestion passed along positioned about every 500 feet that contain information to the investigator. Noting the coverage of freeway incident relating to the roadway name, direction of travel, and scenes that ARTIMIS is now able to provide to public safety, the specific milepost location.

OCR for page 31
C-5 3.4 Operational Implications 3.4.4 Fire Departments 3.4.1 ARTIMIS Metropolitan area fire departments that respond to major incidents in the ARTIMIS jurisdiction provide staff to serve ARTIMIS often serves as the coordination center for major on the incident management team. They also provide spe- incidents. A typical evolution of an incident proceeds as fol- cialized technical information related to hazardous materials lows. An incident management team is formed once either a incidents. Hazardous materials incidents can involve com- major incident has been declared by a public safety officer on plex information that can have far-reaching effects on traffic the scene or the ARTIMIS staff issues a warning based on flow, such as hot zones; areas of isolation and evacuation; input gathered from the system. Specific roles and responsi- control, containment, and stabilization operational require- bilities for each team member involved have been docu- ments; and remediation operations. The fire departments also mented and accepted by the agencies involved. provide EMS and aid to those at the scene of the incident. ARTIMIS acts as the host for the incident management The Cincinnati Fire Department is the oldest professional team and provides necessary facilities, including work space fire department in the nation, having a full-time paid pro- and equipment. ARTIMIS personnel provide support mate- fessional staff since 1853. The fire service is known for its rials and resources to the incident management team, includ- traditions, which can at times be barriers to innovation. If ing communication services, video feeds, portable and fixed transportation/public safety partnerships work in Cincinnati HAR/DMS systems, and freeway service patrol vehicles. with this sort of institutional history, they can work anywhere. Finally, ARTIMIS staff assess and report the status of upstream and downstream traffic flow from the incident and propose and prepare potential alternative routes. 3.4.5 Special Events There are plans to use ARTIMIS as a central command 3.4.2 Public Safety Agencies post for Riverfest September 2003, which draws 500,000+ visitors to the riverbanks. That is a significant traffic load for ARTIMIS has established close working relationships with the region. There will be several major street closures (includ- several local jurisdictions' public safety organizations, includ- ing Interstates) on the night of the fireworks, and coordination ing the Cincinnati and Covington Police Departments. During will be required among the cities of Covington, Newport, and major incidents, the following things happen: Command-level Cincinnati; the law enforcement, EMS, and fire components of personnel are assigned to serve on the major incident team. public safety; and the Ohio and Kentucky DOTs. An agency command post is established to manage police activity and personnel. Public safety agencies also establish a perimeter around the incident to isolate the incident from 3.5 Benefits the surrounding area, control the crowd and traffic at the inci- dent, and identify and implement alternative routes on the In October of 2001, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., with PB Interstate system. Finally, the public safety agencies investi- Farradyne, conducted an evaluation of the ARTIMIS system gate the incident and determine causal factors. These find- for OKI. The investigator did not research the content of this ings--as well as the usual forums related to traffic, civil court, evaluation; however, the investigator believes that it might be criminal court, and insurance claims--can sometimes be used fair to characterize all of ARTIMIS as such an information- to improve travel conditions on the freeways. sharing system and activity and credit all of the reported ben- efits to that category. One law enforcement source estimated that the time sav- 3.4.3 ODOT and KYTC ings for roadway closures after fatal accidents were as much as 90 minutes to 2 hours. The source attributed this savings ARTIMIS coordinates traveller information and TIM for to the use of the Total Station survey equipment, which was the greater Cincinnati area, acting on behalf of ODOT and provided by ARTIMIS to public safety agencies in the area. KYTC. This has off-loaded a significant amount of ODOT and The source reports that this act was seen as a very good ges- KYTC's day-to-day operational responsibilities. The agencies ture by ARTIMIS to forge better relationships with public have been assigned on-call responsibilities for major incidents safety agencies. and provide representatives to serve on the incident manage- ment team. These duties include providing support resources as requested; assessing and evaluating the repair needs of 3.6 Training the freeway infrastructure; and collecting cost data pertain- ing to personnel, equipment, and material relating to the major The Tri-State Emergency Management System has been incident. in place for many years and holds regular forums to help

OCR for page 31
C-6 bring together police, fire, EMS, city building inspection, variable message signs were used in the summer of 2002 to traffic, and other communities. The group has prepared a tell the public about riot-induced curfews. There is also an library of pre-plans, ostensibly to make up for the lack of Amber Alert system in operation in the Cincinnati area, technology. Many exercises have been conducted and cri- called the Child Abduction Alert; however, policies regard- tiqued in an attempt to prepare for emergencies. Participants ing the use of variable message signs in conjunction with have found that these exercises also help to resolve "turf such an alert have not yet been settled. wars" before disasters strike or major incidents occur. One training oddity was noticed by the investigator. Pub- lic safety dispatchers undergo a rigorous 6- to 9-month train- 4.2 Responder and Motorist Safety ing curriculum before they gain the minimum skill levels and Economic Implications necessary for the job. In contrast, they learn about ARTIMIS on the job, with no specific training relating to the services The CVS Pharmacy Samaritan vans have been very helpful they provide. As a result of this report, ARTIMIS staff now to clear minor incidents. They provide experienced motorist instruct recruits at the Cincinnati Police Academy as well as assistance and have also become involved in several other provide part of the initial training given to Cincinnati public locations besides Cincinnati. Both the ARTIMIS and the safety dispatchers. CVS logos are prominently displayed on the side of these freeway service patrol vans, one indicating the involvement of a quasi-governmental organization, and one indicating the 4 COMMENTARY involvement of a major pharmacy chain store. Since CVS pays 4.1 Security, Terrorism, for 49 percent of the cost of the vans and Samaritania pro- and Homeland Defense vides the service, the arrangement is a flagship example of a successful public-private partnership. The costs are directly No specific ARTIMIS features were apparent that related reduced through CVS's involvement, and the benefits are to homeland defense. It was reported to the investigator that undiminished.