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D-1 APPENDIX D MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, CASE STUDY 1 SUMMARY trol for major arterials, and state police dispatch. There are 23 workstations in the RTMC control room. Six are for freeway The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) operations, eight are for police dispatch, six are for mainte- and the Minnesota State Patrol (MSP) have a long history of nance, two are for MnDOT's Metro Division's traffic signal cooperatively managing traffic incidents in the Minneapolis control, and one is for traffic radio. metropolitan area, as well as developing and implementing data and communications systems that support such activities as the new co-located Regional Traffic Management Center 2.2 Acknowledgments (RTMC). This case study describes the institutional frame- work and initiatives that underpin these activities, as well as The following personnel were interviewed for this case the roles and responsibilities of both MnDOT and MSP as study: they relate to traffic incident management (TIM). Methods of sharing TIM information include the following: Susan Groth, Traffic Engineering Section, Transportation Management Center (TMC); Face-to-Face--MnDOT and MSP are co-located at one Nick Thompson, TMC Operations Manager; facility, and MSP and the Freeway Incident Response Teresa Hyde, TMC Operations Supervisor; Safety Team (FIRST) are co-located at a second facility. Todd Fairbanks, TMC Operator; Remote Voice--MSP, FIRST, and MnDOT Mainte- Clayton Sedesky, TMC Operator; nance all share the same 800-MHz radio system. How- Captain Michele Tuchner, MSP Communications (state- ever, MSP does not allow nonlaw enforcement agencies wide); access to their talk groups. Only senior MSP and MnDOT Jeff Thorstad, MSP Communications Shift Supervisor; Maintenance personnel receive agency-supplied cell Tom Peters, TOCC Program Manager; phones; however, all FIRST units have agency-supplied Roberta Dwyer, Duluth Traffic Engineer; cell phones. In addition, there are four operating Trans- Captain Clarence Nyland, MSP District Captain; and portation Operations Communications Centers (TOCCs) Marge Kangas, Radio Communications Supervisor. on-line with five more planned to serve MnDOT and MSP communication needs throughout Minnesota. Electronic Text--MSP has smart terminals, which are 3 INTRODUCTION limited to simple processing and display operations such MSP and MnDOT have traditionally approached TIM in a as blinking and boldface. FIRST is currently using dumb cooperative manner. Effective incident management in the terminals, which have no processing capabilities, but will Minneapolis/St. Paul region is further supported by informa- receive smart terminals by 2004. This will allow FIRST tion sharing at the programmatic and operational levels. to communicate with MSP. MSP and MnDOT/RTMC are currently using computer-aided dispatching (CAD). Other Media and Advanced Systems--Freeway elec- 3.1 Institutional Framework tronic sensing data, both active (signage and traffic con- trol) and passive (loop technology); closed-circuit tele- Many of MSP and MnDOT's TIM activities and coordina- vision (CCTV); and other traffic management systems tion result from longstanding working relationships between are used. the two agencies. Roles and responsibilities of both agencies as they relate to TIM are detailed below. 2 BACKGROUND 3.1.1 MnDOT 2.1 Minneapolis and St. Paul Regional Area The first TMC was established in 1972 to provide traffic In April 2003, MnDOT began operations of the new co- management services to the Interstate highways within located RTCM located in Roseville, Minnesota, 7 miles north- MnDOT Metro Division, which is the Minneapolis and St. east of the city of Minneapolis. The RTMC covers freeway Paul metropolitan area. The TMC managed traffic using 241 operations, including roadway maintenance, traffic signal con- CCTVs with formal guidelines for operations established in

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D-2 April 1999. In addition, TMC had 65 variable message signs rity, and Operations; and the Minnesota Department of Pub- (VMSs), 419 ramp meters, lane control signals, loop detectors, lic Safety's State Patrol Dispatch into a unified communica- traffic radio (KBEM-FM) and traffic signal management tions center. Components of the RTMC include tools. The TMC was superseded by the RTMC in April 2003. Surveillance via CCTV and loop detectors, Ramp meters, 3.1.2 MSP Electronic message signs, Lane control signals, MSP is the state's operational law enforcement organiza- A travel information program, tion within the Minnesota Department of Public Safety. With A high-occupancy vehicle system, funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, MSP had An incident management program, and adopted an automated CAD system in 2002 that helps to The FIRST program. manage the workload of the RTMC system and allows mul- tiple users to access information simultaneously. In addi- tion, MSP has installed mobile data computers in 180 squad 3.2 RTMC Agreements and Formal Programs cars. These computers allow troopers to enter various infor- mation systems, including the National Crime Information Primary initiatives that have set the stage for institutional Center (NCIC). The computers thus increase trooper security, coordination and cooperation between MnDOT and MSP homeland security, and overall public safety. Working with have resulted in enhanced TIM activities through formal MnDOT, MSP is working to deploy nine TOCCs throughout agreements covering information sharing. These memoranda greater Minnesota (five operational, four coming on-line). of understanding and guidelines formalize the relationships These centers serve as communication hubs for emergency between MnDOT, MSP, and FIRST. response, maintenance operations, traffic management, and From an institutional perspective, the memoranda estab- traveler information for the state of Minnesota. lish programmatic directions that relate directly to TIM and the sharing of information. Components of the memoranda include the following: 3.1.3 Freeway Incident Response Safety Teams (FIRST) Leveraging information at MnDOT, TMC, and MSP dis- patch centers. To support traffic management, FIRST (formerly known Sharing information needed to facilitate joint operations as Highway Helpers) is a key component of MnDOT's inci- of highways. These activities may include, but are not dent management program. Currently, FIRST covers eight limited to, video data terminals/computer-aided dis- routes and 160 miles of the Twin Cities metro area freeways. patching 911 (VDT/CAD 911) access and user train- The FIRST teams are dispatched by the RTMC using a global ing, real-time traffic flow, collision and weather infor- positioning system to locate the closest FIRST vehicle to the mation, video surveillance, video road inventories, incident, and that vehicle will respond to the incident and high-speed data transmission, geospatial data, and inter- support MSP and emergency responders in traffic control change drawings. and other duties as needed. FIRST aided more than 14,000 Creating a standard for data sharing that includes, but motorists in the RTMC region in 2002. FIRST assistance to is not limited to, content and formatting, documenta- stranded motorists includes tion, a meta-database, collection and update methods, accuracy, update cycles, and stewardship. Memoranda Changing the vehicle's flat tire, of understanding shall be used to document the shar- Jump-starting the vehicle, ing of information, which cover the items addressed in Refilling the radiator and taping hoses, the standards. Providing a gallon of fuel, Coordinating public information and outreach messages Contacting MSP and/or a tow truck and staying with the to the community on issues that affect both agencies and motorist until help arrives, and their customers. Pushing the disabled vehicle off the roadway or away Communicating timely and accurate information via from a dangerous location. radio, telephone, television, and Internet to the public regarding traffic and travel conditions. This communi- cation includes travel restrictions and information on 3.1.4 RTMC incidents that allow the public to make decisions about traveling convenience and safety. The purpose of the RTMC is to integrate MnDOT's Metro Assisting motorists with service patrols that clear lane- Maintenance Dispatch; FIRST; the Office of Traffic, Secu- blocking debris, disabled vehicles, and their occupants.

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D-3 Coordinating all public and private resources in the effort Electronic Text--Lower-bandwidth interconnection to respond to incidents and clear incidents as quickly as applications, such as electronic messaging and access to possible. CAD or record management systems. Resolving other problems within the ability and scope Other Media and Advanced Systems--Higher- of MSP and MnDOT. bandwidth options, such as video and other imaging sys- tems, and integrated systems, such as advanced traffic management systems. 4 INFORMATION-SHARING METHODS Current methods of sharing TIM information at the RTMC 4.1 What Information and Methods of Sharing are summarized in Table 1. Were Considered? 4.2 Information-Sharing Methods To perform at their best, transportation and public safety in the Minneapolis RTMC professionals need accurate and timely information. National security concerns have further highlighted the need for Overviews and specific examples of TIM-related informa- information-sharing capabilities to enhance traffic incident tion sharing are identified and described below according to detection, response, and management. And, more often today, the categories listed in Section 4.1. such information must be shared across systematic, organi- From a network infrastructure prospective, MnDOT, zational, and jurisdictional boundaries. RTMC, and MSP uses an optical fiber network with a 2.4-Gb MTS examined how the following types of traffic incident backbone with video channels using an OC3 bandwidth; the information were shared: wireless network is a 2.1-GHz analog service used for pub- lic safety voice communication. The infrastructure has been Detection and Notification--Such information engages reviewed by a technical contractor, and plans have been public safety resources, enables rapid medical care to save made to ensure adequate capacity. lives and minimize injury consequences, and reduces transportation infrastructure disruption. Response Information--Traffic conditions, resource 4.2.1 Face-to-Face location, and incident details speed the delivery of the optimal emergency resources to the scene. MSP and MnDOT are co-located at the RTMC, and MSP Incident Management--Incident scene status and and FIRST are co-located at another location. Before MSP and resource coordination information support emergency MnDOT were co-located at the RTMC, the only opportunity responder safety and can hasten incident stabilization, that the MSP and FIRST team members had to communicate investigation, and clearance. was at the incident scene. The co-location of MSP and FIRST has built positive relationships between the personnel. For the purpose of this case study, the results are grouped according to categories of traffic incident information-sharing 4.2.2 Voice Communication (Radio/Cellular) methods. These methods and some examples are as follows: FIRST, MSP, and MnDOT Maintenance all share the same Face-to-Face--Personal communication where staff 800-MHz radio system. MSP does not allow nonlaw enforce- from different agencies share office space (such as joint ment agencies access to their talk groups, although MSP has operations centers or mobile command posts). access to all MnDOT talk groups. Only senior MSP and Remote Voice--Common options readily available to MnDOT Maintenance employees have agency-supplied cell support operations within most transportation and pub- phones, and all FIRST units have agency cell phones. Many lic safety agencies, such as telephone, land mobile radio, lower-level employees use their personal cell phones for offi- and facsimile machines. cial communications. RTMC has its own dispatchers. RTMC TABLE 1 Overview of TIM information-sharing methods at the RTMC Other Media and Advanced Agency Face-to-Face Remote Voice Electronic Text Systems MnDOT Yes Limited Limited Yes MSP Yes Yes Yes Yes MnDOT/FIRST Limited Limited Limited Limited

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D-4 and FIRST operate only between 5:30 a.m. and 8:30 p.m. Communications monitoring, Through a partnership with MnDOT, MSP is deploying Dispatching, TOCCs to operate throughout the state on a 24/7 basis and Road hazard reporting, will share the resources and do the dispatching for MnDOT Weather updates, and FIRST as needed. Facility security monitoring traffic and surveillance man- agement, and System performance management. 4.2.3 Electronic Text MnDOT provides the following up-to-date systems MSP has smart terminals in approximately 180 patrol cars, for MSP: FIRST has dumb terminals in its vehicles and will be getting smart terminals in 2004. The smart terminals will allow FIRST CAD, to communicate with MSP and the MnDOT/RTMC, which Mobile data terminals, will give all agencies full access to the CAD system. Wireless communication infrastructure, Traffic Surveillance CCTV, 4.2.4 Other Media and Advanced Systems Amber Alert signs, Center facilities and technology, and MSP provides the following 24/7 services for MnDOT: Weather reporting.