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E-1 APPENDIX E PHOENIX, ARIZONA, CASE STUDY 1 INTRODUCTION center serves as the dispatch center for fire and EMS in 18 jurisdictions throughout the Phoenix metropolitan area. This section details the various roles and responsibilities of agencies responsible for traffic incident management (TIM) activities in the Phoenix metropolitan area, as well as the insti- 1.2.2 Arizona Department of Public Safety tutional framework that supports these activities. The Arizona Department of Public Safety (Arizona DPS) is a state-level law enforcement agency that works in part- 1.1 Institutional Framework nership with other state, local, and federal agencies to protect The Phoenix metropolitan area was selected in 1997 as one the public. The Arizona DPS's highway patrol division is of four federally funded national metropolitan model deploy- responsible for responding to incidents that occur on free- ment initiatives (MMDIs) that focused on aggressive deploy- ways in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Primary responsibil- ment of regionwide intelligent transportation systems (ITS).1 ities at the incident scene are to establish traffic control mea- Phoenix's MMDI efforts are collectively referred to as sures and conduct crash investigations. AZTech. AZTech was formed by 19 public-sector partners Arizona DPS, under the sponsorship of the American Auto- and 13 private-sector partners by building on existing rela- mobile Association (AAA) and the Maricopa County Associ- tionships and recruiting organizations and interest groups not ation of Governments (MAG), also operates freeway service traditionally involved in transportation activities. On behalf patrols 18 hours a day, 7 days a week. Operational responsibil- of the partnership, Arizona DOT (ADOT) performs project ities of the freeway service patrols as they relate to TIM include administration, and Maricopa County performs project man- agement. Individual projects are administered through col- Assisting uniformed officers with traffic control strate- laborative arrangements among AZTech partners (1). Many gies at the incident scene, of the projects implemented as part of the MMDI specifically Assisting motorists with minor repairs and tire changes, focused on sharing of information between public safety and Removing debris from the roadway, transportation agencies in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Request towing services for disabled vehicles, Removing disabled vehicles from the roadway to a safe location, and 1.2 Roles and Responsibilities Supporting tasks force initiatives such as driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement. 1.2.1 Phoenix Fire Department Arizona DPS also assists in providing traveler information The Phoenix Fire Department (Phoenix FD) operates through the Highway Condition Reporting System (HCRS). 47 fire stations, 54 engine companies, 13 ladder companies, HCRS functions are described below. and 29 ambulances. The primary roles and responsibilities of the Phoenix FD in the context of TIM include fire suppres- sion, hazardous materials containment, clean up, extraction of 1.2.3 Maricopa County Department crash victims from vehicles, and the provision of emergency of Transportation medical services (EMS). Nine hundred Phoenix firefighters are trained emergency medical technicians (EMTs), while an The focal point of Maricopa County Department of Trans- additional 300 firefighters have received additional training portation operations as they relate to TIM is the operation and to become certified paramedics, which enables them to pro- coordination of the Regional Emergency Action Coordinating vide advanced life support treatment. Team (REACT). REACT's operations are critical in support- The Phoenix FD also operates the regional dispatch cen- ing the TIM functions of local police and fire departments, ter. The center is staffed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The especially in assuming traffic management functions, which enable the roadway to be opened quicker. REACT members 1 The Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI) was an aggressive deploy- are assigned specially designed response vehicles that are ment of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) at four urban sites: New York/New equipped with traffic control equipment and devices that meet Jersey/Connecticut, Phoenix, San Antonio, and Seattle. These sites were chosen because of their high level of preexisting ITS and the promise of evaluating the integration of city, state, and federal requirements. REACT operates within these legacy ITS components together with new ITS components. a limited number of jurisdictions 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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E-2 1.2.4 Arizona Department of Transportation the incident. The freeway service patrol's assistance is typi- cally requested only when one or more travel lanes are closed The ADOT Traffic Operations Center (TOC) serves as the on the freeway for more than 1 hour. The freeway service statewide control center for traffic operations and is opera- patrol's vehicles are operated by ADOT under a grant pro- tional 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The ADOT TOC also vided by the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG). serves as the focal point for the TIM operations. TIM func- tions housed in the TOC include detection, verification, traf- fic management, and traveller information dissemination (2). 1.3 Study Approach and Methodology With respect to incident detection, ADOT has embedded detectors in the pavement on the freeways to collect speed Specific data related to information exchanges in the and volume data. Should an incident occur that significantly Phoenix metropolitan area were collected during site visits disrupts traffic, an alarm will be triggered. The operator in to Phoenix FD, the Maricopa County Department of Trans- the TOC can then use one of the more than 60 closed-circuit portation, the City of Mesa Police Department, and the Mari- televisions (CCTVs) that have been implemented throughout copa County Sheriff's Department in July 2002. Site visits the freeway system to verify the incident should the incident provided researchers with the opportunity to observe data happen within proximity to the camera. The CCTV can also sharing and communication between the agencies in the con- be used to monitor the ensuing traffic impacts of the incident. text of actual operations. Andy MacFarlane and Ron Burch With this information, the operator can execute the most hosted the visit to the Phoenix FD. Barbara Hauser hosted the appropriate response in terms of controlling ramp meters and site visit to the Maricopa County Department of Transporta- variable message signs (VMSs). tion Operations Center. Joe Noce hosted the site visit to the The ADOT also operates a traveler information website City of Mesa Police Department. A telephone interview was that contains a number of data elements, including conducted with Tim of Wolfe of ADOT. Periodic follow-up phone interviews were conducted with the hosts to collect Images captured every 7 minutes from the system of and verify additional information. Additionally, an extensive CCTVs, and literature search was conducted to provide background infor- A color-coded flow map that provides link speeds for mation on various information-sharing projects that had been the freeway system in the Phoenix metropolitan area. initiated in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The traveler information system also includes information that is generated through the HCRS. HCRS is designed to pro- 1.4 Acknowledgments vide statewide traveler information that is generated through The key contributors to the Phoenix case study are a variety of sources, jurisdictions, and operating agencies. Data provided by HCRS include Ron Burch, Phoenix FD; Barbara Hauser, ITS Incident Management Coordinator, Current and planned road closures and alternate routes; Current restrictions, such as closed lanes and speed Maricopa County Department of Transportation; and Andy Macfarlane, Phoenix FD; reductions; Joe Noce, Project Manager, City of Mesa Police Depart- Incident or accident location and status; and Current roadway conditions, including weather infor- ment; and Tim Wolfe, ADOT. mation. The TOC also serves as a remote point of operation for the 2 INFORMATION-SHARING METHODS I-10 deck tunnel. Tunnel operations systems controlled from within the TOC include Described below are the voice, data, and multimedia meth- ods employed in the Phoenix metropolitan area between pub- Vent room fans, lic safety and transportation agencies to exchange informa- 25 CCTV cameras, tion in the context of TIM. A tunnel lighting system, Emergency call boxes, Carbon monoxide sensors, and 2.1 Remote Voice Loop detectors. Freeway service patrol vehicles are dually equipped with In the Phoenix metropolitan, the ADOT also operates the Arizona Department of Public Safety (DPS) and ADOT radio freeway service patrol. The freeway service patrol is composed systems. As a result, a majority of the time, DPS officers who of trained operations staff who assist in the operation of free- respond to incidents in the field request freeway service patrol ways. As it pertains to TIM, the primary function of the free- assistance directly using the Arizona DPS radio system, as way service patrol is to support traffic control functions near opposed to routing communications through the agencies'

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E-3 respective dispatch centers, as is common practice with ser- from the ADOT TOC. However, no formal plan, let alone a vice patrol operations. However, occasionally it is necessary well-defined end user application, was ever defined. ADOT's for the Arizona DPS dispatcher to contact the ADOT dis- interest in planning, designing, and implementing such a sys- patcher via telephone to request assistance in managing traf- tem began to diminish, and consequently this initiative never fic at the incident scene. When this occurs, information that is moved forward beyond initial discussions. typically communicated to the ADOT dispatcher includes 2.3 Other Media and Advanced Technologies Location and type of incident, Equipment and number of response personnel requested, Previously, through an agreement with ADOT, Phoenix FD Number of lanes blocked by the incident, dispatchers received video images that were shown on moni- Name and call sign of the officer in the field requesting tors in the dispatch center. Although rights to control the assistance, and pan-tilt-zoom functions of the cameras were never defined in Location of the command post and best access route (3). a formal agreement, dispatchers were able to control the cam- eras. Dispatchers primarily used the information to provide When Phoenix FD was receiving video feeds from ADOT, responders with closure information that helped to foster a it was sometimes necessary for the Phoenix FD dispatcher to more expedient response. This system is no longer operational verbally communicate with the operator in the TOC. More due to a technical problem with the video coder/decoder often than not, the Phoenix FD dispatcher would request cam- (CODEC) that is on the ADOT end. Dispatchers found this era views to be changed so that the dispatcher could view the interface to be very beneficial and would like to restore this prevailing traffic conditions and route the response vehicle functionality. Dispatchers have a significant interest in get- along the most expeditious path. A direct phone line was used ting the video links back into the operations center. between the dispatch center and the TOC to accommodate these communications. 2.4 Additional Activities 2.2 Text Transfer The Phoenix FD has been quite active in recent years in exchanging information within the public safety community Arizona DPS has HCRS workstations in three dispatch cen- and between public safety and outside agencies, such as trans- ters statewide. This enables Arizona DPS to directly enter portation. Several years ago, the U.S. Department of Trans- roadway closures or any other circumstance affecting the oper- portation's ITS Joint Program Office, in partnership with ations of state highways into HCRS. Typically, DPS enters the the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), information directly if it responds to the incident without sup- decided to develop a family of standards that covered the port from ADOT. If ADOT assists in the response, ADOT exchange of incident information between and within public enters the closure information. When DPS enters information, safety and transportation systems. That standard became the an operator in the Arizona DOT TOC reviews the information IEEE 1512 family of standards, which contains the specifica- to ensure that it has been entered correctly. tions for message sets and data elements needed to implement The Arizona Division of Emergency Services also has an such an interface. For a time, a Phoenix FD representative HCRS workstation; however, the workstation is not set up to chaired the committee that developed the standard. In addi- enable the division to enter data. Rather, it is set up to enable tion, the Phoenix FD was involved with (1) a Health Level 7 the division to monitor closures that could affect operations. effort to standardize the exchange of medical information Maricopa County DOT's REACT is responsible for assist- and (2) the Association of Public-Safety Communications ing with traffic management and traveler information func- Officials (APCO) on Project 36, which worked to standard- tions of TIM. REACT is notified of requests for assistance ize the exchange of information between computer-aided dis- with traffic management at the scene of the traffic incidents patching (CAD) systems. via alphanumeric pagers. At least 1 of REACT's 12 team members is on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Phoenix FD receives emergency and planned maintenance 3 REFERENCES road closure updates from the City of Phoenix Public Works 1. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative--Evalua- via facsimile. Closure data assist the Phoenix FD dispatchers tion Report. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway with ensuring that response vehicles avoid closures, thereby Administration, ITS Joint Program Office. increasing response times. 2. Arizona Department of Transportation Traffic Operations Cen- Also of note about information sharing between public ter Operations Manual, October 1998. safety and transportation agencies was a plan to develop a 3. Arizona Department of Transportation Traffic Operations Cen- system that would move incident data to the Phoenix FD ter Operations Manual, October 1998.