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Table 9: POTENTIAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY New technologies What they do Expected results electronic payments faster and more accurate additional system revenue; billing; allows cost-sharing more riders options automatic vehicle locators pinpoints equipment; assists in greater vehicle utilization; schedule adherence; adds to lower capital costs safety in remote areas automated dispatching and optimizes trip assignments greater vehicle utilization; routing lower capital costs automated accounting and provides greater service details; speeds system cash flow; billing speeds processing increases accountability and credibility swipe card technology eliminates need for cash or Speeds boarding process, paper verification of rides allowing better schedule adherence; better validation of rides Relevance to Coordination To be relevant to coordinated transportation operations, a technology should Increase the number of trips taken on the system, Lower the system's operating costs, or Increase the system's revenues. The best technologies for coordinated rural transportation services are those that benefit people and communities by enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation services. Seen in this light, technology is recognized as only one of several important tools for serving the needs of riders and achieving positive results. Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 167

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Technologies that offer the following kinds of service innovations are worth considering: Creating service types that are more responsive to individual travel needs by providing "just-in-time" notice of impending vehicle arrival at the rider's home or other location; Designing different payment and cost-sharing options such as electronic payment; cost-sharing with merchants, doctors, and agencies; third party payment options; and barter arrangements and volunteer banking; Using advanced vehicle designs (e.g., low-floor vehicles); Implementing advanced scheduling, routing, and dispatching procedures (to schedule and re-route vehicles dynamically); and Enhancing communications between headquarters and drivers and between the system and its riders. Technologies that could enhance management coordination include a communitywide travel information data center (including weather data, GIS, and address matching) to serve protective and emergency services as well as transit. Considerations Not all technologies can now return sufficient productivity and efficiency increases to justify the effort and expenses now involved in their application. Coordinated rural transportation services should assess the individual components of their services to see which components could be made more efficient or effective by the application of specific technologies and then assess which technologies might provide the necessary assistance. Regarding the financing of advanced technologies for rural transit operations, some of the key questions are What does it cost to implement (ALL COSTS, including capital acquisition, training, operations, and maintenance)? 168 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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Who pays what portion of the cost? In particular, what portion is paid by the rural transportation system? Who benefits from its implementation? The transportation system? Who else? These components must be weighed against the effectiveness side of the equation, which is to say, what do these technologies do to make rural public transit operations more productive, more revenue-producing, more effective, and more efficient? The concept of sharing the costs of advanced technologies will be one of the most cost-effective strategies available for rural transit operators. One obvious place to start is in the "command central" operation that would connect the system to its vehicles. As locations in Maryland, Michigan, and Minnesota have conclusively demonstrated, sharing the central office functions of radio communications and dispatching with non-transit functions such as Emergency Medical Services, police, fire, rescue, and highway maintenance can be a huge benefit to all parties. If each of these parties had to establish its own GIS, set up its own radio communications, purchase its own dispatching equipment, and train its own operators, the costs to one particular community would be huge. This is exactly what is happening in many communities, even within the narrower province of specialized and human services transportation. Rural communities need coordinated transportation services, not just transit, not just paratransit, not just taxis, not just police cars, and so on. The daunting costs of new technologies might become a potent force to encourage the coordination of services that has sometimes been slow to actually occur. A wide variety of stakeholders need to be involved in cost-sharing. Obvious parties include all levels of government, technology companies, system operators, and transit system users. Examples Some technologies have assisted in making real improvements for rural and small urban transportation systems. Examples include Rural Nevada: Division of Aging Services (DAS) provided a grant to the Northern Nevada Transit Coalition (NNTC) to develop and implement the use of magnetic swipe cards in several transit operations that serve senior citizens (see Use of Magnetic Swipe Cards in Transportation in Rural Nevada, 2003). The primary goal was for NNTC transit operations Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 169

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to eliminate the need for DAS-eligible clients to sign a paper for a bus ride while still being able to provide verification that the passenger did indeed board the transit vehicle. This project will purchase and install debit card technology into approximately 50 buses for passengers throughout rural Nevada who are elderly or have disabilities. The technology will (1) allow clients to not have to carry cash in order to make donations, (2) provide better computerized validation of their rides, (3) result in less chance of missing cash, and (4) increase ease of agency reporting. Passengers are issued personal rider ID cards with the local system logo and their name printed on the card. Encoded data (containing passenger name, ID number, and region code) are stored in three "tracks" or fields on the magnetic strip on the back of the card. Because the cards are encoded with each client's name and personal ID number, the cards are not transferable. Each of the project sites has portable (handheld) magnetic card readers for each vehicle or route. As the passengers board the vehicle, they swipe their cards in the reader. Their name appears on the screen of the card reader (visible by the driver and the passenger) to verify ID. The data from the card are then stored in the memory of the reader along with the time. When the day's trips are complete, each card reader is connected to a system computer. The recorded data on the card reader is then uploaded onto the synchronization utility to be matched with the trip. Once the information is imported into the synchronization utility, the client IDs and time stamps are automatically matched with scheduled trip tickets in the SQL Server database. The user can also delete invalid records such as duplicate or accidental swipes. The matched trip tickets are then automatically updated with the actual "On Board" time stamps recorded by the card reader. Most of the process is handled automatically by the software and is actually very easy for the person at each step of the process. The passengers swipe their cards, the driver verifies the information, and the dispatcher (or office staff) connects the card readers to transfer the data into the system. The entire day's trips for each card reader can be synchronized with the scheduling database in less than a minute or two (depending on the number of trips and unmatched tickets). 170 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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Sweetwater, Wyoming: Sweetwater County Transit Authority (STAR), in cooperation with local human service and coordinating agencies, installed a semi-automated dispatching system to assist with the operation of their para-transit service. The dispatching system uses color-coded computer-based maps to identify origins and destinations and route the particular bus. STAR has chosen to disable the fully- automated driver notification features and route the buses via voice instructions. This enables the dispatcher to override the computer system according to the demands of a given situation. For example, if there is a trip request at the edge of a designated zone, the computer will only send a vehicle from that zone to make the pickup, whereas the dispatcher will notice that there is a vehicle in another zone several miles closer to the trip request and dispatch the nearest vehicle. The dispatching system also allows STAR to track demographic and trip information for every passenger trip and to compile statistics and reports without additional data collection. STAR can, for example, track the number of low-income riders or welfare trips for a given month. This allows STAR to create a detailed analysis of the clientele and to tailor service to meet the needs of this clientele. With the scheduling efficiency provided by the semi-automated dispatching system, in addition to the planning capabilities offered by the demographic tracking system, STAR has been able to increase productivity without additional vehicles or personnel. According to the former director of the Sweetwater Transit Authority, STAR saw a 400- percent increase in the number of rides provided since the inception of the automated system. Arrowhead, Minnesota: The Arrowhead region of Minnesota is a rural area that covers 18,000 square miles in the northeastern area of the state. It is characterized by a sparse population and brutal winter weather that lasts from October until August. Rural public transportation in the Arrowhead region involves 3- and 4-hour trips, without radio contact for nearly all of the journey. Major snowstorms could create serious safety concerns among transit officials. Since October of 1997, the ARCTIC (Advanced Rural Transit Information and Coordination) system has coordinated communication between transit vehicles and the central dispatch facility. Automatic vehicle locator (AVL) systems allow the central facility to track the exact location of transit vehicles. In addition, the automated scheduling system handles reservations and routing for the region's fixed-route, paratransit, and subscription services. The ARCTIC system increases Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 171

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the safety of drivers and passengers dramatically, because there is constant communication between the vehicle and dispatching center and the location of the vehicle can be tracked. Second, the ARCTIC system permits more passengers to ride the rural transportation services because the reservations can be made in real time. Potential passengers can make their trip decisions based on the immediate weather conditions and then call the dispatching center to find the exact location of the nearest vehicle. Although this will not provide thousands of new riders overnight, it will contribute to the long-term growth of rural paratransit in the Arrowhead region of Minnesota. The key to the success of the ARCTIC system is the sharing of the technology and resources among state and local agencies. This sharing spreads the cost among the participating groups (i.e., snow plows, state patrol cars, state DOT maintenance vehicles, transit buses, and volunteer-driven vehicles). In addition, sharing creates benefits across the board, which offset the total cost. Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Cape Cod Transit, acting in conjunction with Bridgewater State College, received an FTA intelligent transportation system (ITS) demonstration grant to implement a computer-aided dispatching (CAD) system, an AVL system, and a SmartCard and mobile data terminal (MDT) system. When the system is completed, all of the hardware and software systems will be connected via a LAN. Montgomery County, Maryland: (Although not generally thought of as a rural area, Montgomery County has received Section 5311 funds, and their technology ideas should be extremely relevant for at least some rural areas.) The Montgomery County Department of Transportation is implementing a CAD system and AVL system on its buses, along with several ATIS applications. These ITS applications will be part of the county's Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS), which will be one of the most advanced transportation systems in the United States when completed. The GPS-based AVL system also includes a trunking radio system and on board computers for each vehicle. The AVL system relays vehicle location data to the control center, where they will then be relayed to information centers and kiosks and to the Public Works web site, where potential riders can find the location of the nearest bus. The AVL system will be linked to the CAD system, which will provide for dynamic routing and scheduling of vehicles. The AVL system will also link with the county's traffic signal control system (located in the same office) which will allow certain buses to receive signal priority at traffic 172 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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lights. MCDOT officials believe that schedule adherence will be dramatically improved with the introduction of the AVL and CAD systems, which will then lead to increased ridership. It is still too early to estimate actual benefits. The key to obtaining the funding for the ATMS system in Montgomery County was the integration of transit with traffic applications. The system was presented as a package deal, designed to manage traffic and transit simultaneously with the ultimate goal of moving people. Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged: The Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged was created in 1989 for the purpose of coordinating special needs transportation in the State of Florida. The Commission serves or advocates for an estimated 5.4 million transportation-disadvantaged Floridians. The Commission recently received a $200,000 FTA Rural ITS demonstration grant for a project involving multi-county and multi- agency coordination through a CAD system. The Commission selected three systems in rural counties, Flagler, St. John, and Putnam, to participate in this demonstration of electronically coordinated transit service for job training, employment, medical services, rehabilitation, and other special needs. The Commission will also be contracting with Florida A&M University for technical assistance. Unique features of this project include coordination among agencies that already employ advanced public transit technologies. Putnam County, for example, already uses a GPS-based AVL system for its vehicles. This means that the Commission will have to ensure that the CAD system that is implemented is compatible with the existing systems in the three counties. Resources Harman, L.J. Advanced Technology for Accessing Jobs, prepared by Bridgewater State College for the Community Transportation Association of America and the Federal Transit Administration, 2003. Kihl, M., Crum, M., and Shinn, D. Linking Real Time and Location in Scheduling Demand-Responsive Transit, prepared by Iowa State University for the Iowa Department of Transportation, 1996. Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 173

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Schweiger, C.L., and Marks, J.B. Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Traveler Information Services: The State of the Art, prepared for FTA and FHWA, 1997. TCRP Report 76: Guidebook for Selecting Appropriate Technology Systems for Small Urban and Rural Public Operators. Prepared by North Carolina State University, KFH Group and Transcore, 2001. Use of Magnetic Swipe Cards in Transportation in Rural Nevada, prepared by Mobilitat, Inc. and Gardatek for the Nevada Division of Aging Services, Nevada Department of Transportation, and the Northern Nevada Transit Coalition, 2003. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Advanced Public Transportation Systems Deployment in the United States, prepared for FTA's Office of Mobility Innovation, August 1996, Report No. FHWA-JPO-96-0032. 174 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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VEHICLE FLEET STATUS AND EVALUATION Description Its fleet of vehicles will be the most significant and important capital asset that a coordinated transportation system will have. It is important to periodically review the status of all vehicles in the coordinated system's fleet. This review achieves several objectives, including assessment of the suitability and condition of vehicles that are available, the need for and timing of vehicle replacement on a scheduled basis, and preparation of a capital program and budget. Such a review also helps in assessing which vehicles in a fleet are most appropriate for the services that are provided, gaps in the fleet, and the need for new types of vehicles not currently in the fleet. Relevance to Coordination In a coordinated setting, maintaining accurate and timely information on In a coordinated vehicle fleets is important in order for all coordination participants to be confident about the reliability and safety of the coordinated services setting, maintaining being provided. Further, especially when setting up a coordinated accurate and timely system, complete and accurate information on all vehicles available for information on vehicle service delivery in relation to service requirements is necessary. Completion of a vehicle fleet inventory is an easy way to get potential fleets is important. coordination participants working together to begin addressing coordination opportunities and issues in their community. Methods To complete a statement of the status and assessment of vehicles available for coordinated transportation services, create a common form that all participating organizations and other transportation services providers will complete. The form should include the following information for each vehicle: 1. Organization contact information: name, mailing address, phone, fax, contact person, and email address; and 2. General fleet characteristics: breakdown of vehicles by size range, seated passenger capacity, and wheelchair capacity. For each vehicle, collect the following information: manufacturer, model, year; purchase price; sources of funding (local, state, federal); Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 175

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odometer reading and date of reading; type of vehicle (automobile, van, light transit, transit); physical length of vehicle; seating capacity-seated and wheelchair; rating of operating condition (excellent, good, fair, poor); year of scheduled replacement; and other features (two-way radio, farebox, IT features, etc.). Considerations Conducting a vehicle Conducting a vehicle fleet inventory can be completed as a stand-alone fleet inventory can be project or it can be incorporated into a broader survey of organization transportation services and capabilities. The inventory and evaluation completed as a stand- provides important information for coordination partners on the size, alone project or it characteristics, and condition of vehicles available. Broader considerations include knowledge of the use characteristics of the can be incorporated vehicles (days and times of use), the availability of vehicles for sharing into a broader survey among organizations, and opportunities for sale and re-use of older of organization vehicles in lighter duty circumstances and in support of volunteer or small community programs. Some vehicles may no longer be suitable transportation services for all-day, daily, high-mileage use, but may still be serviceable for and capabilities. occasional, evening, or weekend use. Examples The Council on Aging and Human Services (COAST) in Colfax, Washington, manages its vehicle fleet so that organizations and communities are able to borrow or lease vehicles from COAST. As vehicles are replaced, they are made available for lending or leasing (See Chapter 8, page 320). Resources Community Transportation Association of America, Rural Transit Assistance Program, Vehicle Procurement, revised 2001, at http://www.ctaa.org/data/rtap_vehicleproc.pdf. Florida Department of Transportation, Public Transit Office, Florida Vehicle Procurement Program, at the University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research web site, at http://www.cutr.usf.edu/research/fvpp/fvpp2.htm. Ohio Department of Transportation, ODOT Vehicle Catalog and Selection Guide, 1997. See also ODOT's Term Contract Program at http://www.dot.state.oh.us/ptrans/Term_Contracts/2002_03_term_ cont.htm. 176 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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VOLUNTEERS Description Volunteers donate time to organizations or individuals on an informal but regular basis. Many rural communities depend on volunteers to provide trips to persons with special transportation needs or to fulfill other critical roles in coordinated transportation operations. Coordinated rural transportation systems have used volunteers in many roles: as drivers, driver recruiters, driver trainers or supervisors, driver recognition leaders, dispatchers, program marketers, or transportation escorts. Volunteers can be especially effective in providing highly personalized levels of care for persons who require "arm-in-arm" assistance in and out of buildings. Some volunteers may even escort individuals through extensive batteries of medical tests or provide other kinds of unusually personalized help. Such assistance is generally not available from paid transportation service drivers or from anyone else except highly trained and highly paid personal assistants or nursing staff. If such services were available from paid staff, the costs would probably be so high that few individuals needing such services could pay for them. Relevance to Coordination Volunteers can save money for transportation agencies and can provide Volunteers can services that would not otherwise be available. Because they are seldom used by public transit agencies, non-transit agencies participating in save money for coordinated transportation services can make volunteers available for transportation the overall benefit of rural communities. agencies and can Clearly, individuals whose travel needs may be poorly served by provide services that traditional transit and paratransit operations still need to travel. In such would not otherwise situations, using volunteer drivers has many benefits: be available. Costs of providing trips are reduced, allowing an emphasis on trips that are difficult to serve (such as long-distance trips). Individuals looking for ways to help their community make contributions to the well-being of others, but they can do so to fit their own schedules and work levels. Persons who might otherwise not be able to travel for specific trips (such as persons with disabilities or who are elderly) enjoy Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 177

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the benefits of access to a wide variety of life-maintenance and life-enriching activities without the worry of intruding on the goodwill of their families, friends, and neighbors. Volunteers usually offer a more personalized service than is available through other travel modes. Methods Finding and maintaining a well-trained, enthusiastic core of volunteers are important keys to success. In some communities (for example, Bedford, Virginia), rural transportation providers believe that volunteers are most easily found in small group settings where individuals have obvious common self-interests. Small communities with binding ties can be found in neighborhoods, other geographic communities, faith- based organizations, and within some foundation, service, medical, and governmental groups. Volunteer Recruiting, training, and maintaining loyal volunteers are subjects that recognition and have received much attention. (For example, see CTAA, 2001; Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation et al., 2003; Burkhardt, 1999.) support efforts are Careful attention must be given to these specific issues. For example, crucial to because volunteers are not working for pay (although many do get maintaining good reimbursement for their expenses), volunteer recognition and support efforts are crucial to maintaining good volunteer workers. volunteer workers. Considerations The Beverly Foundation (2003) has found several key lessons from their efforts in volunteer transportation: Volunteers worry about their potential liability. Insurance for volunteer transportation does not have to be expensive or difficult to obtain. Volunteer involvement can make it unnecessary to purchase vehicles or hire staff. When riders recruit their own volunteer drivers, they can also schedule their own rides. Volunteer friends are often willing to drive when someone asks them. 178 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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Various reimbursement options can make it easier to recruit volunteer drivers. Volunteer involvement can make it possible for a transportation service to meet special needs of travelers at an affordable cost. Volunteer driver services are seen as "user friendly" because many drivers are from those groups of people needing rides. Funding and other resources need to be scaled to specific plans for Developing a coalition volunteer involvement, local conditions, the size of the geographic area to be covered, the institutional complexity of the service area, the of partners and transportation options available, and the level of travel demands. agencies committed Developing a coalition of partners and agencies committed to serving special transportation needs may take some time, and public transit to serving special agencies initially may not recognize the benefits offered by volunteer transportation needs driver programs for services outside of traditional transit networks. may take some time. Examples Many transportation services have successfully used volunteers (Beverly Foundation, 2001). Some of the larger and more successful efforts include those in Riverside County, California, and Portland, Oregon. Both of these services are discussed in depth in Chapter 8; key details are summarized here. The Transportation Reimbursement and Information Project (TRIP) complements public transportation services in Riverside County, California, by reimbursing volunteers to transport individuals where no transit service exists or when the individual is too frail to use other transportation. Older persons are the primary clientele. By using volunteers, a needed service is provided at a small fraction of what it would cost using more conventional methods. As a program of last resort, TRIP supplements rather than competes with public transportation. In fact, TRIP insists that its clients be unable to use public transportation before they are accepted into the program. Therefore, TRIP expands the availability of transportation, increases the number of trips overall, and fills gaps where there is no public transportation service. TRIP is a program of the nonprofit Partnership to Preserve Independent Living for Seniors and Persons with Disabilities. In FY2000-2001, TRIP's annual transportation expenses were $350,157. With this budget, TRIP served 537 people by providing 48,350 one-way trips at a Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 179

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cost of $7.24 a trip. These trips were provided by more than 1,000 volunteer drivers, who were reimbursed at a rate of 28 cents a mile for use of their personal vehicles. If the public transportation providers were to take over the TRIP program with paid drivers and publicly owned vehicles, the costs would be at least five times higher. (In fact, public transit costs would be even greater if the value of a personalized escort service were included.) Persons using TRIP must begin and end their round trip in Riverside County, which is located in Southern California about 60 miles west of Los Angeles. The county includes several cities, the largest of which is Riverside, with a population of 255,000. Much of the 7,200 square miles constituting Riverside County consists of sparsely populated rural areas. For this reason, the average one-way trip provided by TRIP is 22.6 miles. Nearly a third of the county's 1.5 million residents live in unincorporated areas, and almost 13 percent are 65 years of age or older. TRIP is not advertised. Instead, individuals are referred to TRIP by its 130 nonprofit and governmental partners, such as the Department of Social Services, the Office on Aging, visiting nurses, the Multipurpose Senior Services Program, and Care Teams (which consist of the District Attorney's office, police, licensing agencies, adult day care programs, and the Better Business Bureau). TRIP pays Senior HelpLink to screen potential applicants to determine eligibility by questions such as whether the caller is unable to drive, needs assistance getting in and out of a vehicle, or has no family members to provide a ride. About one-third of the applicants are denied eligibility, because the committee determines that the individual can use other transportation options, such as Dial-a-Ride. TRIP is considered a service of last resort. The constituency of The constituency of TRIP is considered "at risk." Typically, a client is in the program for no more than 3 years. This is because persons TRIP is considered accepted into the program are generally unable to live independently "at risk." longer than 3 more years or because they have died within that time- frame. The attrition rate is estimated at 85 percent in 3 years. Because one of the funding sources of TRIP, the Older Americans Act, prohibits income qualifications, eligible riders do not have to be low income, although most are. The philosophy behind TRIP is that people must take responsibility for the outcomes in their lives. Therefore, riders are asked to recruit their 180 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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own drivers. TRIP staff coaches them in how to approach friends and One of the problems neighbors and how to assure them that they are not asking for charity, of elderly people is because they can reimburse the driver. One of the problems of elderly people is isolation, which leads to giving up. Finding a driver isolation, which leads encourages people to get to know their neighbors and reduces the to giving up. feeling of dependency and victimization. Although 85 percent of TRIP clients are successful in recruiting a driver, TRIP staff has begun a volunteer driver corps to help the remaining 15 percent. The concept is to partner with existing organizations to recruit reserve drivers from within those organizations. Ride Connection is a nonprofit community service organization that offers transportation assistance to persons with disabilities and seniors without alternative transportation. Ride Connection serves a three- county area, including Washington, Multnomah, and Clackamas Counties in Oregon. The service area is both urban and rural, because it incorporates Portland and surrounding suburban communities, but also stretches beyond the urban growth area to serve the rural portions of the three counties. The organization prides itself on an ongoing commitment to identifying transportation needs and filling them. Ride Connection has grown to include a network of 32 separate partner agencies and holds 22 separate contracts with its participating providers. The service has more than 330 volunteers providing 236,000 rides annually. An estimated 8,800 residents of the three-county area benefit from participating agency trips each year. Eligibility for the service is self-declared. Ride Connection has an annual operating budget of approximately $4.6 million. More than two-thirds of these funds go to more than 30 provider organizations. Ride Connection's internal budget is just over $1 million, which funds 15 staff members and several support programs. Ride Connection has a planning staff that provides coordinated planning services that benefit participating agencies throughout the three-county area. Ride Connection planners work to identify service gaps and opportunities around community-based transportation. They also act as policy planners and advocates helping to forward transportation policies that support the mobility needs of its clientele. Ride Connection believes strongly that volunteer workers can provide the highest level of service available. They recognize that volunteers do require compensation in the form of recognition, quality treatment and training, and appreciation. Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 181

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Ride Connection treats its relationships with network providers as a collaborative and supportive one, believing that cooperation in problem solving leads to longer term solutions than simple enforcement of its existing contracts. Ride Connection has a very strong commitment to training its volunteers. The organization believes that volunteers can provide an equal or higher level of service as paid employees if they receive the proper training and are recognized for quality work. Resources Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation et al., 2003. Volunteer Drivers A Guide to Best Practices. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ transit/vdg/default.htm. Accessed: December 29, 2003. Bernier, B., and Seekins, T. 1999. "Rural Transportation Voucher Program for People with Disabilities: Three Case Studies." Journal of Transportation Statistics, vol. 2, no. 1. Washington, DC. Bernier, B., Seekins, T., and Herron, K. 1996. Making Transportation Work: For People With Disabilities In Rural America. Supported by Volunteer Rural Transportation Program: Missoula, MT. Beverly Foundation, Enhancing Mobility for Older People, prepared for the Community Transportation Association of America, 2003. Burkhardt, J. Bridging the Gap Between the Elderly and the Disabled: A Volunteer Transportation Option, prepared by Ecosometrics, Incorporated for the Elder Services of the Merrimac Valley and Project ACTION, 1999. Burkhardt, J.E., Koffman, D., and Murray, G. Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportation and Transit Services, TCRP Report 91, prepared for the Transportation Research Board by Westat, March 2003. Available at http://gulliver.trb.org/ publications/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_91.pdf. Metropolitan Transportation Commission. 2003. Senior Mobility Toolkit, Final Report. Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates: San Francisco. pp. 34-46. Montana University Affiliated Rural Institute on Disabilities. 1995. Rural Transportation: Using Vouchers to Improve Access. Missoula, MT. Montana University Affiliated Rural Institute on Disabilities. 1996. Making Transportation Work for People with Disabilities in Rural America. Supported by Volunteer Rural Transportation Program. Missoula, MT. 182 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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The Beverly Foundation, Supplemental Transportation Programs for Seniors, prepared for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, DC, 2001. "Volunteers in Transportation--Some Issues to Consider," Community Transportation Association of America Technical Assistance Brief No. 1, 2001. Chapter 6 Tools for Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues 183

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SUMMARY This chapter has provided information on specific topic areas expected to be vital to the continued success of coordinated transportation systems: Accounting and financial management; Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 504, and coordinated rural transportation services; Budgeting; Consensus building and setting goals and objectives; Involving stakeholders; Marketing and public information; Monitoring and evaluation; Needs assessment; Organization of the planning process; Organizational framework for coordination; Strategic direction--strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; Technology; Vehicle fleet status and evaluation; and Volunteers. The information provided here should allow systems to fine-tune their operations to create more effective and efficient coordinated rural transportation operations. 184 Techniques for Improving Current Coordination Efforts SECTION III

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CASEBOOK OF STATE AND LOCAL COORDINATION MODELS Section IV This fourth component of the Toolkit includes a "casebook" of case studies of successful state and local models of coordinated transportation efforts. This section begins with information gained from a survey of the coordination efforts in all 50 states. Elements of successful state coordination efforts are examined, as are common problems and solutions. The second chapter in this section provides an in-depth look at 29 specific local communities, including those of Native American examples. Benefits of coordinating transportation in rural communities, challenges and opportunities, and recommendations for success are presented from interviews with the directors of local coordinated transportation services. Detailed information is provided on each case, including service types, areas and persons served, ridership and expenses, major funding sources used, and coordinating agencies. Section IV Casebook of State and Local Coordination Models 185

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MODEL PROCESSES FOR STATEWIDE COORDINATION Chapter 7 MODEL PROCESSES FOR STATEWIDE COORDINATION All states were contacted to assess the level of coordination for their state and to ask about important coordination-related issues facing their state. Information was received from every state and several responded with a great deal of information on coordinated transportation services in their state. This chapter describes coordination activities on a national basis, based on the information gathered, followed by an in-depth examination of the coordination efforts of 10 states. THE NATIONAL COORDINATION PICTURE All of the state coordination contacts (100 percent) reported that their Table 10 reports that all States state encouraged coordination. (See Table 10.) Ninety percent of the encouraged coordination. respondents reported that their state was involved with coordination. Both of these numbers are encouraging, as they show that most states are at least aware of the potential benefits to be realized from coordination. Even more encouraging is the fact that nearly one-half of . . . the establishment the states (46 percent) have a coordinating body in place. of a coordinating body is a major step in the Although only 38 percent of the states have passed legislation requiring coordination, 57 percent of those with coordinating bodies have passed process. such legislation. Just over one-fifth of all states (22 percent) have adopted a coordination plan, while 43 percent of those with coordinating bodies have done so. Although there is no guarantee that the appointment of a coordinating body will lead to future coordination successes, it is clear that the establishment of a coordinating body is a major step in the process. Chapter 7 Model Processes for Statewide Coordination 187