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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 101 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Toolkit for Rural Community Coordinated Transportation Services

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of January 2004) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of January 2004) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA J. BARRY BARKER Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Transit Authority of River City Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MEMBERS KAREN ANTION MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT Karen Antion Consulting SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC GORDON AOYAGI Montgomery County Government E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS RONALD L. BARNES JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads Central Ohio Transit Authority DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN LINDA J. BOHLINGER GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, HNTB Corp. Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles ANDREW BONDS, JR. BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority Parsons Transportation Group, Inc. SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JENNIFER L. DORN JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, Landstar Logistics, Inc., Jacksonville, FL FTA HENRY L. HUNGERBEELER, Director, Missouri DOT NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR. ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Metropolitan Atlanta RTA RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments CONSTANCE GARBER HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT York County Community Action Corp. SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and Public FRED M. GILLIAM Affairs, University of Illinois, Chicago Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute KIM R. GREEN of Technology GFI GENFARE SHARON GREENE KAM MOVASSAGHI, Secretary of Transportation, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Sharon Greene & Associates CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JILL A. HOUGH JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT North Dakota State University DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC ROBERT H. IRWIN JOHN REBENSDORF, Vice Pres., Network and Service Planning, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE British Columbia Transit PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT CELIA G. KUPERSMITH C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and LINDA S. WATSON, General Manager, Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority, Corpus Christi, TX Transportation District PAUL J. LARROUSSE EX OFFICIO MEMBERS National Transit Institute MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT DAVID A. LEE Connecticut Transit SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT CLARENCE W. MARSELLA REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Denver Regional Transportation District GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy FAYE L. M. MOORE of Engineering Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Authority JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON ROBERT B. FLOWERS (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commander, U.S. Army Corps of Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. Engineers ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads DMJM+HARRIS JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association PAUL P. SKOUTELAS MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Port Authority of Allegheny County SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA LINDA S. WATSON JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Corpus Christi RTA ALLAN RUTTER, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space MARY E. PETERS Administration FHWA JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA (Chair) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT LOUIS F. SANDERS GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, Los Angeles APTA WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association SECRETARY ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority, Corpus Christi, TX

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 101 Toolkit for Rural Community Coordinated Transportation Services JON E. BURKHARDT Westat Rockville, MD CHARLES A. NELSON Nelson Development, Ltd. Akron, OH and GAIL MURRAY DAVID KOFFMAN Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. San Francisco, CA S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 101 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project B-24 FY'01 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-08797-X of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2004107820 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2004 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $36.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Special Notice Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein project. The process for developing research problem statements and solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing project reporting. cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager GWEN CHISHOLM-SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor HILARY FREER, Associate Editor II PROJECT PANEL B-24 Field of Service Configuration CHARLES CARR, Mississippi DOT (Chair) MARTI DILLEY, Alaska DOT SANTO GRANDE, Delmarva Community Services, Cambridge, MD RONALD HALL, Colorado State University PAUL HAMILTON, Capital Area Rural Transportation System, San Marcos, TX SHELLY A. PFAFF, South Dakota Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities, Pierre, SD TOM SEEKINS, University of Montana PATRICIA WEAVER, University of Kansas EFFIE STALLSMITH, FTA Liaison Representative PAMELA BOSWELL, APTA Liaison Representative DIANNE MCSWAIN, U.S. Office of Intergovernmental Affairs Liaison Representative CHARLES A. RUTKOWSKI, Community Transportation Association of America Liaison Representative PETER SHAW, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research that produced this report was performed under TCRP and Joey Goldman of Nelson\Nygaard; and Anton Yachmenev of Project B-24 by Westat, with the assistance of Nelson Development, Nelson Development (formerly Creative Action, Inc.). Ltd.; Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc.; and Mobilitat, Inc. We would like to thank many people for substantial contributions Jon E. Burkhardt, Senior Study Director at Westat, was this project's to this project. Our TCRP Project Officer, Gwen Chisholm-Smith, Principal Investigator. Mr. Burkhardt of Westat, Charles Nelson of directed the Project Panel's efforts on the project. We are grateful Nelson Development, and David Koffman and Gail Murray of for the assistance provided to us by the members of our Project Nelson\Nygaard were the key authors of this report. They were Panel. We appreciate the time and insights given to us by the many assisted in this project by Cindy Johnson of Mobilitat; Adam T. state officials and rural transportation operators who worked with McGavock of Westat; Thomas Brennan, Paul Lutey, Michele King, us in our interviews.

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TCRP Report 101: Toolkit for Rural Community Coordinated Transportation FOREWORD Services examines strategies and practices used to coordinate rural transportation By Gwen Chisholm-Smith services and identifies model processes used for local coordination efforts in rural Staff Officer communities. This report includes a stand-alone executive summary that provides Transportation Research information, instructions, and lessons learned from rural communities that have Board implemented coordinated transportation services. This information may be used by local communities, state agencies, and tribal governments in planning and imple- menting coordinated community transportation services in rural areas. Coordinated transportation services are evolving as rural communities around the country strive to address more effectively the mobility and access needs of rural residents. These efforts typically involve a number of stakeholders, including human service organizations, public transportation providers, tribal governments, school districts, and special districts. Many states have also recognized the benefits of co- ordinating the various programs and thereby supporting greater mobility in rural communities. Coordinated transportation services, developed through community-based plan- ning efforts, typically use resources more effectively and efficiently and offer improvements in mobility. But even though coordinated transportation systems have been demonstrated as effective, they have not been universally adopted in areas where they are potentially appropriate. Obstacles to adopting a coordinated approach may include inadequate information about procedures for organizing cooperative efforts at the state level, a lack of comprehensive procedures for local organization and planning, beliefs by some persons that a combination of federal or state regula- tions or organizational policies prohibit cooperation, and reluctance on the part of potential coordination partners to devote time and resources to planning and implementation. This report identifies ways to improve ongoing coordination efforts and docu- ments the critical factors that help determine success or failure in establishing sus- tainable rural public transportation services. Special attention is given to successful strategies used to obtain the necessary ongoing operational funding for the trans- portation services. Westat, in association with Nelson Development, Ltd.; Nelson\Nygaard Con- sulting Associates, Inc.; and Mobilitat, Inc., prepared this report for TCRP Project B-24. The project's primary objective was to develop a document that would inform local communities, state agencies, and tribal governments in areas related to plan- ning and implementing coordinated community transportation services in rural com- munities. To achieve the project's objective, the research team performed a litera-

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ture review, conducted a comprehensive survey, performed interviews, and conducted case studies. This report includes information on who needs to be involved in coordinated trans- portation, how coordination works, and coordination's benefits. The Toolkit also provides information, instructions, and examples of lessons learned from actual implementation experiences.

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Contents TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION..............................................................1 SECTION I: Basic Coordination Concepts.........................................9 CHAPTER 1 Basic Coordination Concepts .....................................11 Some Definitions................................................................................11 The Evolution of Efforts to Coordinate Specialized Transportation Services .................................................................13 Who Needs to Be Involved in Coordinated Transportation Services? ........................................................................................15 Problems That Coordination Addresses.............................................16 Goals for Coordinated Transportation Services.................................18 How Coordination Works ..................................................................19 Summary ............................................................................................20 CHAPTER 2 Coordination Details: Benefits, Costs, and Barriers..........................................................................................21 The Overall Benefits and Costs of Coordination ...............................21 What are the Possible Benefits of Coordination? ..............................22 How to Use Coordination's Benefits .................................................31 The Costs of Coordination .................................................................32 Factors That Inhibit Coordination......................................................33 Requirements of Federal Funding Programs .....................................35 Problems with Accountability, Cost Allocation, Paperwork, and Reporting.................................................................................38 Operational Challenges to Coordinated Transportation ....................39 Summary ............................................................................................40 SECTION II: Implementing New Coordination Efforts.................41 CHAPTER 3 How To Implement New Coordinated Transportation Services ......................................................................43 Introduction........................................................................................43 Implementation Steps for Coordinated Transportation......................44 Summary ............................................................................................73 Contents vii

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CHAPTER 4 Frequently Asked Questions About Coordination Efforts............................................................................75 Will Coordination Save Me Money? .................................................76 What Are the Important Federal Funding Sources for Rural Transportation? ..............................................................................77 What Funding Sources Am I Missing?..............................................81 Which Legislative Barriers Do I Need To Watch Out For? ..............82 Where Can I Get Planning Funds?.....................................................84 What If We Tried Coordination Before and Never Got Anywhere? Should We Try Again?...............................................85 Some Agencies are Willing to Participate, But Others are Not. What Should We Do? ....................................................................85 Whom Should We Involve in Our Initial Efforts?.............................86 With All the Work on Coordinated Rural Transportation Systems for Many Years, Why Isn't Coordination Easier? .........................86 Will Coordination Require That I Give Up My Vehicles? Control Over My Funding for Transportation? The Welfare of My Clients? ..........................................................87 Why Have Some Coordinated Transportation Systems Failed to Succeed or Survive?...................................................................88 What are the Fundamental Components of Successful Coordination?.................................................................................89 Summary ............................................................................................91 SECTION III: Techniques For Improving Current Coordination Efforts............................................................................93 CHAPTER 5 Strategic Approaches To Coordination.....................95 High-Impact Coordination Strategies for Transportation Operators........................................................................................95 Lessons Learned from Successful Coordination Efforts .................100 Summary ..........................................................................................102 CHAPTER 6 Tools For Addressing Detailed Coordination Issues ...........................................................................105 Accounting and Financial Management ..........................................106 ADA, Section 504, and Coordinated Rural Transportation Services ........................................................................................110 Budgeting.........................................................................................115 Consensus Building and Setting Goals and Objectives ...................125 Involving Stakeholders ....................................................................129 Marketing and Public Information...................................................134 Monitoring and Evaluation ..............................................................140 Needs Assessment............................................................................147 Organization of the Planning Process ..............................................152 Organizational Framework for Coordination...................................156 Strategic Direction Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats...................................................................................160 Technology ......................................................................................164 viii Contents

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Vehicle Fleet Status and Evaluation ................................................175 Volunteers ........................................................................................177 Summary ..........................................................................................184 SECTION IV: Casebook Of State and Local Coordination Models .........................................................................185 CHAPTER 7 Model Processes For Statewide Coordination ........187 The National Coordination Picture ..................................................187 Elements of Successful Coordination Efforts ..................................189 Common Problems and Solutions....................................................195 Statewide Coordination Profiles ......................................................197 Summary ..........................................................................................215 CHAPTER 8 Successful, Insightful, Coordinated Transportation Services In Rural Communities.............................217 Methodology ....................................................................................217 Benefits of Coordinated Rural Transportation Services ..................218 Challenges and Opportunities ..........................................................220 Recommendations for Success ........................................................222 Case Studies of Local Coordination Efforts ....................................228 Summary ..........................................................................................325 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................327 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...........................................................330 GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS.........................................331 CONTACT LIST FOR CASE STUDY SYSTEMS ........................343 List of Appendixes APPENDIX A: Stakeholder Interview Guide................................A-1 APPENDIX B: Survey of County Transportation Services..........B-1 APPENDIX C: Sample Transportation System Survey Forms .....................................................................................C-1 APPENDIX D: Identifying Best Practice Systems ........................D-1 APPENDIX E: Coordination Workshop Facilitation Guides ......E-1 APPENDIX F: Detailed Operating Cost Categories for Coordinated Transportation Systems ........................................F-1 APPENDIX G: Examples of Various Interagency Agreements to Enhance Coordination.............................................G-1 APPENDIX H: Sample Transportation Coordination Plan Report ........................................................................................H-1 APPENDIX I: Example of State Legislation Creating Statewide Coordinating Council .........................................................................I-1 Contents ix

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List of Tables Table 1: Primary Audiences for Sections of this Toolkit ....................3 Table 2: Potential Coordinated Transportation Benefits: System Characteristics (Inputs) .....................................................26 Table 3: Potential Coordinated Transportation Benefits: Performance Measures...................................................................27 Table 4: Potential Coordinated Transportation Benefits: Service Attribute Assessments.......................................................27 Table 5: Potential Coordinated Transportation Benefits: Users' Overall Service Assessments..............................................28 Table 6: How to Generate Provider/Program Cost Savings ..............29 Table 7: Strategic Approaches to Coordination.................................99 Table 8: Potential Coordinated Transportation Benefits..................142 Table 9: Potential Connections Between Technologies and Productivity and Efficiency...................................................167 Table 10: State Coordination Activities...........................................188 Table 11: How Coordination Activities Have Been Implemented .......................................................................190 Table 12: Operating Statistics for Huron County Transit................237 Table 13: Operating Funds for the Link (FY2000-2001) ................275 Table 14: Transportation Network Driver Hours.............................276 Table 15: South Central Transit's Fare Structure ............................310 List of Figures Figure 1: Huron County Transit Funding Sources...........................237 Figure 2: Huron County Transit's Ridership Increase.....................238 x Contents