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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 528 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Thermally Sprayed Metal Coatings to Protect Steel Pilings: Final Report and Guide

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of July 2004) OFFICERS Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs and Department of Civil and Material Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC JOHN H. REBENSDORF, Vice President, Network Planning and Operations, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando, FL MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) BETTY MONRO, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway (Chair) and Transportation Officials JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board Los Angeles C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 528 Thermally Sprayed Metal Coatings to Protect Steel Pilings: Final Report and Guide JAMES A. ELLOR WALTER T. YOUNG JOHN REPP Corrpro Companies, Inc. Ocean City Research Group Ocean City, NJ S UBJECT A REAS Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Soils, Geology, and Foundations Materials and Construction Maintenance Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 528 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project E24-10 FY'98 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08801-1 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2004110541 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2004 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $25.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 528 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP TIMOTHY G. HESS, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ELLEN M. CHAFEE, Assistant Editor BETH HATCH, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT E24-10 PANEL Field of Soils and Geology--Area of Mechanics and Foundations WILLIAM M. MEDFORD, North Carolina DOT (Chair) RICHARD R. CARTER, California DOT RICHARD P. LONG, University of Connecticut PAUL MCDAD, Texas DOT STEVEN OLSON, HNTB Corporation, Minneapolis, MN JOSEPH S. PUTHERICKAL, Iowa DOT FRANK REA, Florida DOT PHILLIP A. WALTON, New York State DOT BOB KOGLER, FHWA Liaison Representative G. P. JAYAPRAKASH, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Corrpro Companies, Inc., performed this research under NCHRP Repp, P.E., conducted the laboratory tests. Dr. Richard Knight of Project 24-10. The work was performed at Corrpro Companies, the Materials Engineering Department at Drexel University in Inc., facilities in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and in Ocean City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided consultation on thermally New Jersey. Mr. James A. Ellor, P.E., and Mr. Walter T. Young, sprayed metal coating issues. P.E., were the Principal Investigators for this project. Mr. John

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NCHRP Report 528 consists of two documents: (1) a final report that presents the find- FOREWORD ings of a research project investigating thermally sprayed metal coatings (TSMCs) and (2) By Timothy G. Hess a guide for the application of TSMCs to protect steel pilings from corrosion. This report Staff Officer will be of immediate interest to professionals in the public and private sectors responsible Transportation Research for designing, installing, inspecting, and maintaining steel pilings. The report will also be Board of interest to those charged with specifying TSMC materials and methods for the applica- tion of TSMCs. Thermally sprayed metal coatings (TSMCs) are available as alloys of base metals such as aluminum and zinc. TSMCs can offer substantial advantages when compared with other types of coatings commonly used to protect steel pilings primarily because of their resis- tance to corrosion and handling damage. However, available publications do not provide sufficient guidance for highway agency personnel on TSMC materials and the use of TSMCs for steel pilings. Without this information, there is reluctance to use this tech- nology. There has been a need for research on the use of TSMCs to protect steel pilings. Conclusions concerning the performance and potential benefits of TSMCs are needed as is a guide to assist state highway agencies in properly specifying and applying TSMCs. A guide can help highway agency personnel responsible for steel pilings to consider TSMCs and to make more rational decisions about the use of protective pile coatings. Under NCHRP Project 24-10, Corrpro Companies, Inc., investigated the existing state of knowledge pertaining to TSMCs and developed a guide addressing the application of TSMCs for the protection of steel pilings. The guide was developed as the result of in- vestigating existing standards and specifications, coating applicators, and widely used practices pertaining to TSMCs. Laboratory work was performed to refine critical areas not adequately addressed in current literature and practice such as abrasive mix, edge geome- try, sealers, and steel hardness variations. The final report for this project includes a literature review, a synthesis of existing prac- tice, a presentation of laboratory results, and four supporting appendixes: Appendix A: List and Description of Existing TSMC Specifications, Appendix B: List and Description of Existing TSMC Guides, Appendix C: Literature Review References and Summaries, and Appendix D: Bibliography. The Thermally Sprayed Metal Coating Guide, which is the primary product of this research, includes procedures for the application of TSMCs for corrosion control on piles used in highway construction. The guide provides information for a user to select, specify, and apply a metal coating for steel piles in freshwater, brackish, or seawater environments. The guide will significantly enhance the capabilities of highway agencies in using TSMCs to protect steel pilings from corrosion.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 FINAL REPORT 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Research Approach Issues of Concern, 5 Research Plan, 5 7 CHAPTER 2 Findings Collect and Review Domestic and Foreign Literature, 7 Procedures Used in Laboratory Tests, 12 Results of the Laboratory Tests, 19 39 CHAPTER 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, Application Interpretation and Appraisal, 39 Long-Term Implementation Plan, 39 41 CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research Conclusions, 41 Suggested Research, 42 43 REFERENCES A-1 APPENDIX A List and Description of Existing TSMC Specifications B-1 APPENDIX B List and Description of Existing TSMC Guides C-1 APPENDIX C Literature Review References and Summaries D-1 APPENDIX D Bibliography 1 THERMALLY SPRAYED METAL COATING GUIDE 2 SECTION 1 Introduction 3 SECTION 2 Safety and Environmental 12 SECTION 3 Coating Materials and Selection 23 SECTION 4 Surface Preparation 31 SECTION 5 TSMC Application 45 SECTION 6 Sealer Selection and Application 51 SECTION 7 Repair and Maintenance 56 SECTION 8 Quality Control and Inspection 68 SECTION 9 Qualifications 74 SECTION 10 Referenced Documents 89 SECTION 11 Generic Sealer Specification 94 GLOSSARY