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D-1 APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY* REFERENCES COMMENTS John R. Birchfield, "Stainless Steel Metallized Superheater This paper is a case study of the use of D-gun (JETKOTE) spraying of 316 stainless steel to 1 Tubes," Welding Design and Fabrication, October 1985. increase the corrosion resistance of tube assemblies. M. S. J. Hashmi, C. Pappalettere, and F. Ventola, "Residual This paper discusses the use of the hole-drilling strain-gauge method to measure residual 2 Stresses in Structures Coated by a High Velocity Oxy-Fuel stresses that can develop in the coating. The authors concluded that the HVOF thermal Technique," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, spray process yields residual tensile stresses that can decrease the fatigue life of the 1998. component. This paper discusses Thermal Dynamics' JET KOTE system and Union Carbide's D(detonation)-gun system. The JET KOTE system is a supersonic coating device capable of 3 Robert R. Irving, "JET KOTE: A Supersonic Coating reaching temperatures of 5,500F and exhaust velocities of 4,500 fps. The author discusses Method Ready to Take on `D-Gun'," June 1984. the advantages and disadvantages of JET KOTE, D-gun, and plasma. The JET KOTE system reportedly gives harder coatings than those produced by D-gun and plasma spray. Abstract: The recently promulgated environmental regulations concerning volatile organic compounds (VOC) and certain hazardous heavy metals have had a great impact on the bridge painting industry. As a response to these regulations, many of the major coating manufacturers now offer "environmentally acceptable" alternative coating systems to replace those traditionally used on bridge structures. The Federal Highway Administration sponsored a 7-year study to determine the relative corrosion control performance of these newly available coating systems. A battery of accelerated laboratory tests was performed on candidate coating materials with a maximum VOC content of 340 g/L (2.8 lbs./gal). Accelerated tests included cyclic salt fog/natural marine exposure, cyclic brine immersion/natural marine exposure, and natural marine exposure testing. Natural exposure Robert A. Kogler, J. Peter Ault, and Christopher L. test panels were exposed and evaluated for a total of 6.5 years. The most promising coating Farschon, "Environmentally Acceptable Materials for the systems were selected for long-term field evaluation based on accelerated test performance. Corrosion Protection of Steel Bridges," Federal Highway The long-term exposure testing was conducted for 5 years in three marine locations. Panels Administration Report FHWA-RD-96-058, January, 1997. were exposed on two bridges, one in New Jersey and one in southern Louisiana. The third long-term exposure location was in Sea Isle City, New Jersey. Thirteen coating systems 4 were included for long-term exposure testing. These included 2 high-VOC controls and 11 test systems having a VOC level of 340 g/L (2.8 lbs./gal) or less. Five of the test systems contained high-solids primers, two of the test systems contained waterborne primers, one system was based on a powder, and three systems were metallizing. The best performing systems were the three metallized coatings. These were initially less aesthetic than coating systems with high-gloss topcoats, but they displayed near-perfect corrosion performance after 5 to 6.5 year exposure periods. Of the traditional liquid applied coating systems, those incorporating inorganic zinc primers performed the best over near- white blasted and power-tool cleaned surfaces. High-solids epoxy coatings had a tendency to undercut at intentional scribes and rust worse than coatings with zinc-rich primers over less than ideal surface preparations. Current bridge painting methodologies and corrosiveness of various bridge substructures were investigated. Various bridge maintenance painting options were evaluated on a life- cycle cost basis using data developed in the program. The analysis points to the potential advantages of long-term durable coatings such as metallizing and alternative painting practices such as zone painting. P. A. Kulu and T. A. Khalling, "Flame Spray Coatings on This paper discusses the method of application and properties of fused coatings on powder 5 Powder Metallurgy Materials," 1987. metallurgy materials. This paper studies the role of particle properties, such as hardness and shape in slurry and S. Lathabai, M. Ottmller, and I. Fernandez, "Solid Particle airborne erosion, on thermal sprayed coatings. The authors concluded that hard, angular 6 particles cause more severe damage than softer, more rounded particles. Coating properties, Erosion Behavior of Thermal Sprayed Ceramic, Metallic and Polymer Coatings," Wear, 1998. such as hardness, do not exhibit a correlation with erosion rates. However, coating microstructure and defect population influence erosion mechanisms. This paper discusses various methods to apply thermal spray coatings. Methods discussed Clifford F. Lewis, "Processing Makes the Difference in 7 include Union Carbide's D-gun and Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc.'s JET KOTE II Thermal Spray Coatings," Materials Engineering, August hypervelocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) system and plasma spray. One of the benefits of JET 1988. KOTE II is the ability to control oxide content with the choice of fuel. The Platt Brothers & Company is a manufacturer of zinc and zinc alloyed wire used in the thermal spray process. Platt publishes Metallize, a quarterly newsletter to promote the advantages of zinc thermal spraying. This particular issue discussed comparative studies of 8 "Thermal Spraying with Zinc and Zinc/Aluminum Alloy various thermally sprayed materials at dams and canals. The newsletter, in these Wire," Metallize, The Platt Brothers and Company. applications, obviously concluded that thermal spray zinc and zinc alloys exhibited superior performance when compared with conventional paint coatings, coal tar enamel, emulsion and epoxy, aluminum-bronze coatings, and stainless steel coatings. In one case, a service life between 100 and 200 years was estimated for the zinc thermal spray coating. This paper discusses the JET KOTE thermal spray technique when it was new. JET KOTE K. V. Rao, "Characteristics of Coatings Produced Using a 9 relies on continuous internal combustion of oxygen and a fuel to produce a high velocity New High Velocity Thermal Spray Technique," October, exhaust jet stream. The author focuses on four JET KOTE coatings: WC-12%Co, WC- 1985. 17%Co, TRIBALOY alloy T-800, and HASTELLOY alloy C. Ronald W. Smith and Richard Knight, "Thermal Spraying 10 This article discusses thermal spray processes and characteristics. The authors present a I: Powder Consolidation from Coating to Forming," JOM, range of thermal spray processes and the materials systems that are able to be produced. August 1995.

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D-2 REFERENCES COMMENTS Ronald W. Smith and Richard Knight, "Thermal Spraying 11 This article discusses the economics and reliability concerns over material structure, II: Recent Advances in Thermal Spray Forming," JOM, uniformity, and materials properties associated with thermal spray formings. April 1996. This paper discusses new devices and methods for plasma detonation deposition of coatings which give a permanent delivery of gases and powders into the combustion chamber. The Yu N. Tyurin, A. D. Pogrebnjak, "Advances in the authors focus on -Fe2O3 and WC(88%)-Co(12%) coatings. It was concluded that while 12 Development of Detonation Technologies and Equipment plasma detonation technology may be used in various applications, an increased for Coating Deposition," Surface and Coating concentration of the -phase and other metastable phases in the Al2O3 coating reduce its Technologies, 1999. micro-hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance while, at the same time, improving its density and adhesion to the substrate. Thus, care must be taken to control the parameters to produce the desired coating characteristics. D. J. Varacalle, Jr., D. P. Zeek, G. S. Cox, D. Benson, K. Accelerated corrosion testing was performed to evaluate arc sprayed 85:15 wt% Zn-Al and 13 W. Couch, E. Sampson, and V. Zanchuck, "Twin Wire Arc 70:30 wt% Zn-Al coatings. Experiments were performed to evaluate coating performance for Infrastructure," J. Therm. Spray Technol., Vol 7 (No.4), as a function of process conditions (nozzle diameter, spray distance, current, etc.). December 1998. This paper discusses the suitability of zinc and aluminum coatings, applied by a twin-wire arc process, for corrosion protection. The authors performed a sequential regression D. J. Varacalle, Jr., D. P. Zeek, V. Zanchuck, E. Sampson, analysis to establish a relationship between process parameters (orifice diameter, gun 14 K. W. Couch, D. M. Benson, and G. S. Cox, "Zinc and pressure, current, and spray distance), coating microstructural attributes, and corrosion Aluminum Coatings Fabricated with the Twin-Wire performance. This analysis generally indicated that corrosion resistance increased with Electric Arc Spray Process," SSPC International increasing porosity and lower oxide content. However, the authors concluded that, based on Conference, 1997. confirmation testing, the combination of lower porosity and lower oxide content mitigates corrosion. Question and answer article. Responses are uniform in recommending that flame cut edges "Preparing Flame-cut Edges for Thermal Spray," Journal of 15 be ground to remove the hardened layer formed from flame cutting. Unless this is done, the Protective Coatings and Linings, Problem Solving Forum, hardened layer (having a hardness of Rc 50 or more) will prevent adequate profile from May 2002, pp. 1718 being formed. This paper investigates the effects of slurry erosion on ceramic coatings under different plasma spray conditions. The authors concluded that ceramic coatings, such as Al2O3 and H. X. Zhao, H. Goto, M. Matsumura, T. Takahashi, M. Cr2O3, generally exhibit improved wear resistance, but become significantly weakened 16 Yamamoto, "Slurry Erosion of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic under normal impact conditions. Also, slurry resistance varied with different plasma spray Coatings," Surface and Coatings Technology, 1999. methods. Methods (using a "jet-in-slit type apparatus) were used to assess the slurry erosion properties quantitatively and qualitatively. National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) International References This book provides a compilation of technical papers on anode resistance. These papers Classic Papers and Reviews on Anode Resistance 17 discuss fundamentals of anode resistance and specific applications including ships and Fundamentals and Applications, 1986. offshore platforms. This book provides a compilation of papers presented at the NACE symposium held in Innovative Ideas for Controlling the Decaying 18 Orlando, Florida in March 1995. These papers discuss case histories and innovative and Infrastructure, 1995. cost-effective ideas for resolving corrosion problems in marine environments. * Bibliography not verified by TRB.