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21 accomplished by calculating the point value for each recorded more often than truck driver factors. Most studies show that the incident and then totaling driver-specific safety score sum- ratio of passenger vehicle driver errors to truck driver errors in maries by driver name. crashes, including fatal crashes, is at least 2:1 (Craft 2004, As shown in Figure 8, the insured then used this informa- FHWA 1999, Blower 1998). An obviously important element tion to identify high-risk drivers. Once the pool (e.g., say, of safe commercial driving is defensive driving (i.e., avoiding worst 25%) of high-risk drivers was identified, the client's crashes that might be caused by other drivers). managers then focused their intervention and training efforts Are there significant individual differences in commercial on these individuals. drivers' defensive driving skills? Data from the local/short-haul This approach toward identifying and managing at-risk truck instrumented vehicle study (Hanowski et al. 2000) de- behavior is new to the motor carrier industry, and the insurer scribed earlier imply that there are such variations in truck reported that many clients had been using the system for less drivers' abilities to avoid the mistakes of other drivers. than 1 year. As a result, a validated sampling of reduced crash In the study, 42 truck drivers were involved in 137 CIs involvement was not available at the time this synthesis was caused primarily by other drivers during 1,376 hours of driving, prepared. Informal interviews of clients who used such an yielding an average rate of 0.12 such CIs per hour. Figure 9 approach, however, reported such benefits as shows the frequency distribution of rates of involvement in other driver CIs. It allowed them to focus their "scare" safety intervention Of the 42 truck drivers, 10 had other driver CI/hour rates resources (e.g., limited field safety staff on those individ- greater than 0.20. These 10 drivers drove 16% of the total uals who are most at risk for future crash involvement). driving hours of the study but were associated with 45% of It provided the opportunity for "pre-crash" intervention all the other driver CIs (61 of 137). The correlation between and management, which in many cases salvaged the truck driver involvement rate in other driver CIs and involve- careers of individuals who would not "float to the top" ment rate in truck driver CIs was +0.24, suggesting some until their records would require immediate termination. association between involvement risk for the two types of traffic incidents. 4.2.4 Defensive Driving 4.3 NON-DRIVING CRIMINAL HISTORY This synthesis focuses on commercial driver risk factors, but most analyses of driver-related factors in crashes between large Having a criminal record is likely to make it difficult for trucks and passenger vehicles have indicated that passenger individuals to find work as a commercial driver. Of course, a vehicle driver errors or other driver factors are cited much driver's criminal record is relevant to other carrier concerns Figure 8. Comparative safety scores illustrating variation in driver risk prediction.