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33 problems with decision-making ability and performance of tify contributing situational factors and factors associated with mental function requiring logical ability, apathy, reduced particular drivers. attention to detail, degraded endurance, and reduced safety). Further, according to the International Maritime Organiza- tion (IMO) (2001), some of the more recognizable symptoms 4.10.3 Aviation of fatigue found in pilots (operators) are stress, mood swings, In 2002, there were approximately 4,000 airspace incidents, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. Fatigue can affect the majority of which were categorized as operational errors, pilot performance by impacting pilots' ability to think clearly pilot deviations, or surface incidents. Each year approximately or make decisions, to concentrate, to focus attention appro- 1,000 aviation-related fatalities occur (FAA 2003). Operator priately, to assess risky situations, or to act as quickly as nec- performance is a prominent issue in aviation incidents, but a sin- essary. Other impairment signs include poor memory (failure gle "operator profile" is difficult to ascertain. Airplane and heli- to remember task sequences), slow response (to emergencies), copter pilots have a variety of training backgrounds (e.g., loss of bodily control (slurred speech), and mood or attitude high-performance military aircraft combat or training or more changes (irritable or a "don't care" attitude). One of the most conservative modes of air transport). As with rail, airline pilots alarming consequences of fatigue is uncontrollable micro- are trained in accordance with federal regulations. sleeps that may last a few seconds to a couple of minutes, and Violations involving drugs or alcohol are a basis for imme- of which drivers may be unaware. Micro-sleep lapses have been diate grounding and dismissal. A pilot who reports to fly with a well documented as causing a number of maritime and other blood-alcohol content (BAC) > 0.06, or whose unannounced transportation incidents (IMO 2001). As discussed earlier, there urine test displays traces of prohibited drugs, can be relieved of is evidence of large individual differences in susceptibility to duty, grounded, or fired, with little or no recourse. Similarly, a micro-sleeps and other manifestations of fatigue. pilot who receives a driving under the influence (DUI) citation while driving a vehicle may be grounded, punished, or fired (Phil Olsen, personal communication, January 30, 2004). 4.10.2 Rail The primary infractions that result in license suspension or revocation generally fall into a few broad categories: In 2002, 14,404 railroad accidents/incidents occurred in which there were 11,103 nonfatal injuries and 951 fatalities Runway incursion (caused by disorientation, distraction, (Federal Railroad Administration 2003). Of the 2,944 train or inattention) accidents for which a major cause was identified, "human Failure to follow company or aircraft operating proce- factors" was assigned as the principal causal category for dures 1,050 (36%). In terms of operator violations, stop signal vio- Failure to follow air traffic control guidance (altitude, lations were the most common, followed by speeding viola- heading, airspeed, taxi instruction) tions (Coplen, 2004). Violation of airspace restrictions The process of becoming a certified locomotive engineer (operator) is outlined in CFR 240. Railroad employee records In a large fraction of the cases, it is pilot distraction or and driving records (within 36 months concerning alcohol/ inattention that starts the chain of events that leads to an controlled substances) are reviewed (CFR 240 115 b1). Vision infraction (Jim Chadwick, personal communication, Febru- and hearing acuity are evaluated by a medical examiner. Spe- ary 2, 2004). cific training, knowledge (of the railroad's rules and practices Adams, Koonce, and Hwoschinsky (2002) surveyed 4,000 for the safe operation of trains), and skills (operating, equip- pilots in an attempt to characterize the decision-making styles ment inspection, and train handling practices, and compliance of accident-free and accident-prone pilots. They reported that with federal safety rules) are also tested before certification. accident-prone pilots were more likely to expose themselves No research focusing on individual differences and high- to unsafe flying experiences, feel time pressure when making risk rail operators could be identified. Perhaps most relevant decisions, have a false sense of their ability to handle a situ- is research planned by England's Rail Safety and Standards ation, and not review alternative options or solutions. Board of signals passed after danger (RSSB 2002). This proj- The concept of crew resource management (CRM) is seen ect will establish a method of assessing existing driver work- in aviation as well as maritime transport. In aviation, the dic- load, including risk associated with overload/underload with tatorial pilot command concept has been replaced by CRM, a goal of establishing control measures to reduce driver work- which trains aircrews to encourage discussion and evaluation load (RSSB 2002). The program will also develop methods of by the entire cockpit crew in emergency avoidance and man- quality assurance for (1) staff skills, training, and management agement prior to an ultimate decision by the pilot (Phil Olsen, and (2) incident investigation and analysis methods to iden- personal communication, January 30, 2004).