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39 both to drivers and their managers, in addition to providing ized in the commercial motor transport industry. Behavioral, collision warnings (Knipling and Olsgard 2000). OBSM analytic, and technological advancements could make this tech- data can serve as the basis for short- and long-term safety nique more acceptable to drivers and easily used by managers. performance feedback and counseling to drivers and can be Also, OBSM needs to be seen as data support for management employed in support of fleet behavior-based safety (BBS) actions rather than as an end in itself; as one respondent noted, and safety incentive programs. "Use of on-board monitoring needs to occur with one-on-one In spite of this safety potential, commercial drivers and feedback to drivers." It also needs to be integrated with enlight- fleet safety managers have not widely embraced the use of ened behavioral safety management methods. OBSM. A major issue is driver acceptance. A 1995 study sponsored by the Office of Motor Carriers (OMC; the prede- cessor agency to FMCSA) and conducted by Penn + Schoen 5.4 DRIVER EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT Associates found that OBSM was not well accepted by commercial drivers because they perceived it as an invasion 5.4.1 Training and Counseling of privacy and/or as a sign of disrespect for their professional- ism as drivers. Ironically, drivers in this study generally Training for new hires on driving skills, company rules for acknowledged the potential safety benefits of its use. A recent driving (e.g., speed policy), other company procedures and commercial driver focus group study conducted by the Lib- policies, loading and unloading, and customer relations is an erty Mutual Research Institute (Roetting et al. 2003) found important part of the hiring process for most safety-conscious that drivers were willing to be monitored and to receive feed- fleets (ATAF 1999b; Knipling, Hickman, and Bergoffen back from on-board technologies, but only if the feedback 2003). Most fleets hire new drivers in a probationary status were specific, constructive, individualized, and implemented and then have them train with a driver trainer or senior driver. within a positive and supportive management environment. Some companies conduct apprenticeship and "finishing" pro- Knipling, Hickman, and Bergoffen (2003) found that OBSM grams for new drivers, and many conduct regular refresher was one of the least used of the 28 fleet safety management training for their experienced drivers. Most carrier safety man- practices reviewed. Among those managers who actually used agers rate their in-house training programs as being important it, however, OBSM was often ranked as one of the more effec- to carrier safety (Stock 2001). According to one safety man- tive safety management methods. These survey results were ager, "Training/retraining of all drivers is a must. Consistent similar--only 31% of the safety manager respondents used driver quarterly safety meetings are also a must. Keep safety a the method, but its effectiveness ratings from those who used constant." it were second only to continuous tracking of crashes, viola- Of greatest interest here are remedial training programs for tions, and incidents. problem drivers. The research project survey and a similar pre- As discussed by Knipling, Hickman, and Bergoffen (2003), vious survey (Knipling, Hickman, and Bergoffen 2003) yielded it is ironic that carrier safety managers almost universally mon- almost identical results. In both surveys, 69% of carrier safety itor driver crashes, incidents, and violations, but do not typi- manager respondents employed remedial training for problem cally monitor the source safety behaviors that create these drivers, and its effectiveness was rated about average of the outcomes. Involvement in safety outcomes such as crashes, methods presented. The term "remedial training" may cause incidents, and violations is obviously affected by chance, and resentment among some drivers; an option is give it a more reports of these events may be misleading or inaccurate. Poten- benign name such as "refresher training." Like most industrial tial advantages of continuous OBSM include the following: training, remedial training for commercial drivers should focus on specific safety-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes. If · It provides objective, naturalistic data on driving behaviors conducted by a manager or senior driver, it affords an opportu- that are the "source" of crash risk. nity for one-on-one counseling and building a rapport that can · It is continuous, and thus potentially can provide real- lead to better compliance with fleet safety rules. time, daily, weekly, or long-term evaluations of drivers. One large mid-western fleet employs a high-fidelity truck · If multiple measures are employed, the data can selec- driving simulator to provide remedial/refresher training to its tively address specific safety behaviors (e.g., tailgating, problem drivers. The simulator enables realistic training on hard braking). special roadway conditions (e.g., upgrades, downgrades, and · Feedback to drivers can be provided in a timely manner. slippery roads) and emergency maneuvers (e.g., responding · It can be the basis of reward programs as well as disci- to a jackknife or tire blowout). plinary action. Unfortunately, few studies have documented the effec- · It can be used to address safety behavior and performance tiveness of remedial driver training. Unless evaluation stud- issues before a crash, incident, or violation occurs. ies are carefully controlled, it can be difficult to separate genuine improvement from random improvement that would In short, OBSM is a technology and management approach have occurred without training. A recent review of 24 stud- with tremendous potential, but this potential is not being real- ies of post-license non-commercial driver education found