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43 Geller and Williams 2001, Krause 1997). Geller (2001) sug- Several studies have successfully used self-management gests there are three dynamic and interactive factors in a safety techniques to increase the safety-related driving behaviors culture (i.e., system), called the "Safety Triad." Changes in one of bus divers (Olson and Austin 2001), short-haul truck drivers factor usually impact the other two. As depicted in Figure 17, (Hickman and Geller 2004), and CMV drivers (Krause a successful BBS approach requires continual attention to all 1997). Olson and Austin (2001) used a combination of self- three factors in the Safety Triad. monitoring and feedback with commercial bus drivers to Unfortunately, because of its emphasis on direct behavioral influence a 12.3% increase in safe driving performance, with observation and feedback, BBS is most applicable to settings individual increases in performance ranging from 2% to 41%. where employees work in groups (e.g., manufacturing, mainte- Hickman and Geller (2004) used an intervention package com- nance) rather than alone. In the trucking industry, BBS is likely posed of training, self-monitoring, feedback, and goal setting to be more effective when applied to loading and unloading with short-haul truck drivers and reported reductions in two tar- safety than when applied to solitary driving. Driver self- geted at-risk driving behaviors--overspeeding and extreme management, described in Section 5.4.4, is an attempt to trans- braking. Krause (1997) used a combination of self-monitoring fer the principles and benefits of BBS to solitary work settings. and feedback with CMV drivers and reported a 66% reduction in injuries and crashes. 5.4.4 Driver Self-Management Since most commercial drivers operate their vehicles alone, there may be substantial benefits from the development and The effectiveness of behavioral self-management has been widespread application of practical self-management tech- documented in numerous clinical settings. Self-management niques for them. If driver self-management practices could be techniques documented include the reduction of alcohol con- integrated with other fleet safety-promoting activities, it sumption (Garvin, Alcorn, and Faulkner 1990; Sitharthan, may become an effective CMV safety management tool. For Kavanagh, and Sayer 1996), the control of personal weight example, as discussed earlier in this chapter, the use of self- (Baker and Kirschenbaum 1993), exercise (Konradi and Lyon management relating to driving safety parameters recorded on 2000), and the cessation of smoking (Curry 1993). Unfortu- OBSMs could be a particularly powerful intervention because nately, the potential benefits of using self-management tech- of the many safety-critical behaviors (e.g., speed, acceleration, niques to improve safety-related driving behaviors have headway maintenance) that can be captured by OBSMs. Unfor- received little attention and have only recently been evaluated tunately, a minority of carriers encourage driver safety self- systematically. management (36% in the survey), and it was not rated as highly Self-management is an improvement process whereby indi- effective by either carrier safety managers or other experts. viduals change their own behavior in a goal-directed fashion Safety self-management, like BBS in general, appears to be a (Mahoney 1972) by (a) manipulating behavioral antecedents, technique with great but unrealized potential in the CMV (b) observing and recording specific target behaviors, and industry. Moreover, since the whole concept of safety self- (c) self-administering rewards for personal achievements management presupposes some level of worker self-motivation (Geller and Clarke 1999, Kazdin 1993). Research indicates and conscientiousness, it may be a technique that is more that five self-management procedures can facilitate behavioral effective in making good drivers better than in correcting the improvement, including (a) activator management (Heins, Lloyd, and Hallahan 1986), (b) social support (Stuart 1967), unsafe behaviors of the worst drivers. (c) goal setting (Locke and Latham 1990), (d) self-monitoring and self-recording (Lan, Bradley, and Parr 1993), and (e) self- 5.4.5 Termination rewards (Sohn and Lanal 1982). The fleet management methods described above are various ways to improve the performance of problem drivers within a fleet. The widespread success of behavioral approaches Person Environment demonstrate that undesirable behavior can be changed. Never- Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Equipment, Tools, Machines, theless, termination is always an option and may be the prudent decision for many problem drivers. No survey questions Intelligence, Motives, Personality Safety Housekeeping, Heat/Cold, Engineering asked directly about termination, but "suspension from ser- vice" as a driver disciplinary method was practiced by 84% Culture of respondents and rated by them as one of the most effective management practices. In their comments, survey respondents minced no words in their comments on necessary management Behavior actions when dealing with their worst drivers: Complying, Coaching, Recognizing, Commu nicating, "Problem drivers are generally unresponsive to efforts Demonstrating "Actively Caring" to make them safer. The only option that will enhance Figure 17. The Safety Triad (Geller 2001). safety is removal."

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44 "Bad drivers are bad drivers. You can't change them. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1973 pro- Just get rid of them." hibits discrimination against qualified individuals 40 years "Worst 10% tend to stay that way, whatever you do old or older. In addition, many states and local jurisdictions unless caused by inexperience, youth, or medical/sleep have enacted protections against discrimination based on sex- condition." ual orientation, status as a parent, marital status, and political "The ultimate goal of the safety manager is to eliminate affiliation. the bottom 10% of drivers." The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits dis- "Once identified, high-risk drivers must totally convince crimination against qualified individuals with disabilities. me they are capable of change, or you must get rid of A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment them." that substantially limits major life activities. Employers are "A poor employee has little or no regard for policies and required to provide reasonable accommodations (e.g., making laws no matter what the task. These employees need to work facilities more accessible) to disabled persons to facili- be removed from service." tate their performance of essential job tasks. Yet, an employer is not required to make special accommodations if so doing The U.S. EEOC, which enforces laws and provides over- requires significant expense or hardship to the company. sight of federal employment regulations, does not prescribe To avoid becoming embroiled in civil or criminal cases any standard procedures for termination or layoff of employ- involving charges of discrimination, employers should (a) not ees. Yet, the federal government has established laws and engage in such discrimination and (b) keep extensive and regulations prohibiting job discrimination based on ethnic precise records documenting job-related reasons for hiring group, race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. and firing actions.