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B-1 APPENDIX B PROJECT STATEMENT OF WORK INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THE "HIGH RISK" COMMERCIAL DRIVER Background and Problem Statement Numerous studies indicate that a relatively small percentage of commercial drivers (10 to 20%) are involved in a dispro- portionate percentage of crashes (approximately 50%). Specific statistics vary, but the rule seems to hold true across various CMV operation types and per various dependent measures including crashes, incident involvements, and fatigue/ drowsiness episodes. This project will elucidate this phenomenon and identify ways that the high-risk driver can be targeted by various safety programs and practices, both at the fleet and industrywide levels. Objectives and Scope The required study will 1. Summarize available information on the individual differences in commercial driver safety performance and alertness and examine the reliability and validity of various metrics and tests that are employed to hire better drivers and, perhaps more important, to avoid hiring high-risk drivers. 2. Identify safety management techniques that are currently used by commercial vehicle carriers to target problem drivers and their specific risky behaviors. 3. Conduct a scan of other industries that employ safety-sensitive individuals (e.g., airlines, nuclear power, railroads, mar- itime, and the military) and summarize key techniques used to identify and address high-risk individuals/employees. 4. Identify and discuss the institutional and regulatory issues that affect the ability of an employer to address potential or current high-risk employees. One central question the synthesis study will examine is the degree to which individual differences in commercial driver safety reflect long-term, enduring personality traits (pointing to the need for better classification and screening), versus learned behaviors that may be readily changed by appropriate behavior-based safety management (e.g., training, performance feedback, rewards, and punishments). The study will also identify needs for (a) research to delineate CMV individual driver differences and (b) tools to aid fleet safety managers in better managing their human resources from the safety perspective. CMV fleet safety managers will be the principal audience for this study. In addition, the study should be useful in guiding future research and technology in this area. As such, it will be useful to the FMCSA, industry trade association researchers, and other motor carrier safety researchers. In addition to an extensive literature review, it is anticipated that this research project will conduct surveys of the FMCSA, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, American Transportation Research Institute, Motor Freight Carriers Asso- ciation, major commercial truck and bus carriers, and other relevant organizations, as appropriate.