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C-1 APPENDIX C CARRIER SAFETY MANAGER SURVEY FORM CARRIER SAFETY MANAGER SURVEY Individual Differences and the "High Risk" Commercial Driver Commercial (truck and bus) drivers are generally safe drivers. For example, most car-truck crashes are caused by the car driver, not the truck driver. However, not all commercial drivers are safe. This survey, which takes about 15 minutes to complete, focuses on problem commercial drivers the ones with the highest crash risk. Sections deal with the size of the problem, associated factors, and management solutions. Thanks for your participation and support! Part 1: How Important Is the Problem? For the questions below, CIRCLE THE LETTER of the statement you agree with the most. 1. Fill-in two percentages (totaling 100%) that best explain differences in crash rates and risk among commercial drivers. Differences in crash risk among commercial drivers are about __________% due to differences in behavior or skill, and about __________% due to uncontrollable factors (i.e. luck). 2. This is a hypothetical question. Suppose that you managed a large fleet with drivers similar to your current fleet. Suppose also that you managed the same group of drivers in this company for a long period of time say, 10 years. Given this hypothetical situation, which statement would most likely be true about the worst 10% of your drivers? (circle the appropriate letter) a. The worst 10% of drivers would have about 10% of the safety problems; in other words, there would be no particular "high- risk" drivers in the fleet. b. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 20% of the safety problems. c. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 30% of the safety problems. d. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 40% of the safety problems. e. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 50% or more of the safety problems. 3. How consistent and enduring are individual differences in driver safety? Which statement do you agree with the most? (circle the appropriate letter) a. A driver's risk, relative to other drivers, can change dramatically over time. This year's best drivers can be next year's worst. b. There is some tendency for drivers' relative risk levels to stay about the same, but this can change over time due to luck or other factors. c. There is a strong tendency for drivers' risk levels to stay about the same year-to-year relative to other drivers; this year's problem drivers will likely also be next year's problem drivers. Part 2: Driver Factors Associated with Risk The following driver characteristics or behavioral tendencies might correlate with crash risk; that is, they might be associated with crash risk to varying degrees. In general, HOW STRONG IS THE ASSOCIATION of each of the following factors with driver crash risk? (Circle the appropriate number on the scale to the right of each factor) No Moderate Strong Association Association Association 4. Young driver (e.g. less than 25) 0 1 2 3 4 5. Older driver (e.g. 60 or older) 0 1 2 3 4 6. Inexperienced (new to commercial driving) 0 1 2 3 4 7. New to company 0 1 2 3 4 8. Did not attend formal truck driving school 0 1 2 3 4 9. Aggressive/angry 0 1 2 3 4 10. Impatient/impulsive 0 1 2 3 4 11. Inattentive 0 1 2 3 4 12. Introverted/unsociable 0 1 2 3 4 13. Dishonest 0 1 2 3 4 14. Unhappy/disgruntled with job or company 0 1 2 3 4 15. Debt or other financial problems 0 1 2 3 4 16. Unhappy marriage or other family problems 0 1 2 3 4 17. Obese/overweight 0 1 2 3 4 18. Sleep Apnea or other sleep disorder 0 1 2 3 4 19. Heart or other medical condition 0 1 2 3 4

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C-2 Instructions for Parts 3, 4, and 5: For each of the safety management methods or approaches listed below, please CIRCLE "YES," if your organization currently uses the safety management system. Then, IF "YES," CIRCLE YOUR RATING of its level of safety effectiveness in your organizations' fleet safety. In other words, do you believe the safety management method is a viable and effective tool in identifying high-risk drivers and generally increasing safety in your fleet? Part 3: Which Driver Hiring Practices and Tools Do You Regularly Use? If "Yes," please rate effectiveness. Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 20. Check MVR Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 21. Check criminal record Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 22. Check credit history and rating Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 23. Contact past employers Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 24. Test for alcohol/drugs before hiring Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 25. On-road driving test before hiring Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 26. Selection tests Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 (e.g. personality, performance) If yes to #26, which test(s) do you use:_________________________________________________ 27. Use third-party service (e.g. DAC Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 Services) to assist screening and hiring Part 4: How Do You Evaluate Drivers in Your Fleet? If "Yes," please rate effectiveness. Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 28. Continuous tracking of driver crashes, Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 incidents, violations 29. Periodic observation of driving Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 30. "How's My Driving" placards with Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 call-in phone numbers 31. On-board electronic monitoring Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 Part 5: How Do You Manage Your Problem Drivers, once Identified? If "Yes," please rate effectiveness. Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 32. Remedial training Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 33. Manager ride-alongs for evaluation/ Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 feedback 34. Senior driver ride-alongs for Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 evaluation/feedback 35. Suspension from service Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 36. Verbal reprimand Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 37. Written reprimand Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 38. Monetary penalties Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 39. One-on-one counseling by manager Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 40. Mentoring/counseling by a senior driver Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 41. Monetary rewards for improvement Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 42. Non-monetary rewards for improvement Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 (e.g. recognition, praise) 43. Teaching self-management to driver Yes No 0 1 2 3 4 (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting) For questions 44-45, CIRCLE THE LETTER of the statement you agree with the most. 44. For drivers in general, which has a greater influence on driver safety? (circle the appropriate letter) a. Rewards for safe driving (praise, merchandise, cash) b. Disciplinary actions for unsafe driving c. The above two have equal impact

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C-3 45. For problem drivers (e.g., worst 10%), which has a greater influence on driver safety? (circle the appropriate letter) a. Rewards for safe driving (praise, merchandise, cash) b. Disciplinary actions for unsafe driving c. The above two have equal impact Part 6: Comments 46. Any comments on high-risk commercial drivers or any part of this survey? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part 7: Information about You and Your Fleet 47. The approximate number of years you have been a safety manager (for carrier motor operations)? ___________ 48. Your approximate total years experience in commercial vehicle operations? _____________ 49. The number of power units currently in your organizations' fleet? ____________________________ 50. How would you characterize your fleet's primary operation? (Circle or underline the operation type that best characterizes your fleet) a. For hire: long haul/truckload b. For hire: long-haul/less-than-truckload (LTL) c. For hire: local/short haul (most trips less than 100 miles from home base) d. Private industry: long haul e. Private industry: local/short haul (most trips less than 100 miles from home base) f. Passenger carrier: long haul/motor coach g. Passenger carrier: local/transit h. Other: ____________________________ Please mail your survey form in the enclosed self-addressed envelope to: Dr. Ron Knipling, VA Tech, 7054 Haycock Road, Falls Church, VA 22043. Dr. Knipling can also be contacted via phone at 703-538-8439, fax at 703-538-8450, and email at rknipling@vtti.vt.edu. Should you wish to provide your contact information (as noted on the cover letter), you will be sent a FREE copy of the project final report to be published in Summer, 2004, and an Adobe (pdf) copy of a completed report entitled, Effective Commercial Truck & Bus Safety Management Techniques. Thank you again for your participation in this study!