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D-1 APPENDIX D OTHER EXPERT SURVEY FORM EXPERT SURVEY Individual Differences and the "High Risk" Commercial Driver Commercial (truck and bus) drivers are generally safe drivers. For example, most car-truck crashes are caused by the car driver, not the truck driver. However, not all commercial drivers are safe. This survey, which takes about 15 minutes to complete, focuses on problem commercial drivers the ones with the highest crash risk. Sections deal with the size of the problem, associated factors, and management solutions. Thanks for your participation and support! Part 1: How Important Is the Problem? For the questions below, CIRCLE THE LETTER of the statement you agree with the most. 1. Fill-in two percentages (totaling 100%) that best explain differences in crash rates and risk among commercial drivers. Differences in crash risk among commercial drivers are about __________% due to differences in behavior or skill, and about __________% due to uncontrollable factors (i.e. luck). 2. This is a hypothetical question. Suppose that you managed a large long-haul fleet. Suppose also that you managed the same group of drivers in this company for a long period of time say, 10 years. Given this hypothetical situation, which statement would most likely be true about the worst 10% of your drivers? (circle the appropriate letter) a. The worst 10% of drivers would have about 10% of the safety problems; in other words, there would be no particular "high- risk" drivers in the fleet. b. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 20% of the safety problems. c. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 30% of the safety problems. d. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 40% of the safety problems. e. The worst 10% of the drivers would have about 50% or more of the safety problems. 3. How consistent and enduring are individual differences in driver safety? Which statement do you agree with the most? (circle the appropriate letter) a. A driver's risk, relative to other drivers, can change dramatically over time. This year's best drivers can be next year's worst. b. There is some tendency for drivers' relative risk levels to stay about the same, but this can change over time due to luck or other factors. c. There is a strong tendency for drivers' risk levels to stay about the same year-to-year relative to other drivers; this year's problem drivers will likely also be next year's problem drivers. Part 2: Driver Factors Associated with Risk The following driver characteristics or behavioral tendencies might correlate with crash risk; that is, they might be associated with crash risk to varying degrees. In general, HOW STRONG IS THE ASSOCIATION of each of the following factors with driver crash risk? (Circle the appropriate number on the scale to the right of each factor) No Moderate Strong Association Association Association 4. Young driver (e.g. less than 25) 0 1 2 3 4 5. Older driver (e.g. 60 or older) 0 1 2 3 4 6. Inexperienced (new to commercial driving) 0 1 2 3 4 7. New to company 0 1 2 3 4 8. Did not attend formal truck driving school 0 1 2 3 4 9. Aggressive/angry 0 1 2 3 4 10. Impatient/impulsive 0 1 2 3 4 11. Inattentive 0 1 2 3 4 12. Introverted/unsociable 0 1 2 3 4 13. Dishonest 0 1 2 3 4 14. Unhappy/disgruntled with job or company 0 1 2 3 4 15. Debt or other financial problems 0 1 2 3 4 16. Unhappy marriage or other family problems 0 1 2 3 4 17. Obese/overweight 0 1 2 3 4 18. Sleep Apnea or other sleep disorder 0 1 2 3 4 19. Heart or other medical condition 0 1 2 3 4

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D-2 Instructions for Parts 3, 4, and 5: For each of the safety management methods or approaches listed below, please CIRCLE YOUR RATING of its level of safety effectiveness in fleet management. In other words, do you believe the safety management method is a viable and effective tool in identifying high-risk drivers and generally increasing safety in your fleet? Part 3: Driver Hiring Practices and Tools Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 20. Check MVR 0 1 2 3 4 21. Check criminal record 0 1 2 3 4 22. Check credit history and rating 0 1 2 3 4 23. Contact past employers 0 1 2 3 4 24. Test for alcohol/drugs before hiring 0 1 2 3 4 25. On-road driving test before hiring 0 1 2 3 4 26. Selection tests (e.g. personality, performance) 0 1 2 3 4 27. Use third-party service (e.g. DAC 0 1 2 3 4 Services) to assist screening and hiring Part 4: Driver Evaluation Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 28. Continuous tracking of driver crashes, 0 1 2 3 4 incidents, violations 29. Periodic observation of driving 0 1 2 3 4 30. "How's My Driving" placards with 0 1 2 3 4 call-in phone numbers 31. On-board electronic monitoring 0 1 2 3 4 Part 5: Driver Management Highly Not Highly Ineffective Ineffective Sure/Neutral Effective Effective 32. Remedial training 0 1 2 3 4 33. Manager ride-alongs for evaluation/ 0 1 2 3 4 feedback 34. Senior driver ride-alongs for 0 1 2 3 4 evaluation/feedback 35. Suspension from service 0 1 2 3 4 36. Verbal reprimand 0 1 2 3 4 37. Written reprimand 0 1 2 3 4 38. Monetary penalties 0 1 2 3 4 39. One-on-one counseling by manager 0 1 2 3 4 40. Mentoring/counseling by a senior driver 0 1 2 3 4 41. Monetary rewards for improvement 0 1 2 3 4 42. Non-monetary rewards for improvement 0 1 2 3 4 (e.g. recognition, praise) 43. Teaching self-management to driver 0 1 2 3 4 (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting) For questions 44-45, CIRCLE THE LETTER of the statement you agree with the most. 44. For drivers in general, which has a greater influence on driver safety? (circle the appropriate letter) a. Rewards for safe driving (praise, merchandise, cash) b. Disciplinary actions for unsafe driving c. The above two have equal impact 45. For problem drivers (e.g., worst 10%), which has a greater influence on driver safety? (circle the appropriate letter) a. Rewards for safe driving (praise, merchandise, cash) b. Disciplinary actions for unsafe driving c. The above two have equal impact

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D-3 Part 6: Comments 46. Any comments on high-risk commercial drivers or any part of this survey? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part 7: Information about You 47. Approximately how many years of professional experience do you have relating to motor carrier safety? __________ 48. Please circle or underline all experience areas below for which you have one year or more experience relating to motor carrier safety. (Circle or underline all experiences which you have had one or more years experience) a. Government enforcement b. Other government (e.g. rulemaking) c. Industry trade association d. CMV driver e. Carrier safety manager f. Other carrier management position g. Safety consultant or vendor to fleets h. Accident investigation/data analysis i. Motor carrier safety research j. Journalist k. Driver trainer l. Insurance for motor carriers m. Other: ____________________________ Please mail your survey form in the enclosed self-addressed envelope to: Dr. Ron Knipling, VA Tech, 7054 Haycock Road, Falls Church, VA 22043. Dr. Knipling can also be contacted via phone at 703-538-8439, fax at 703-538-8450, and email at rknipling@vtti.vt.edu. Should you wish to provide your contact information (as noted on the cover letter), you will be sent an Adobe (pdf) copy of th e project final report via email when it is published in Summer, 2004, and a copy of the completed report entitled, Effective Commercial Truck & Bus Safety Management Techniques: A Synthesis of Safety Practice. Thank you again for your participation in this study!