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8 CHAPTER 2 SURVEY METHOD AND RESULTS 2.1 METHOD On one question ("Selection Tests"), safety managers responding "yes" were also asked to write in the selection A primary vehicle for obtaining information in this research test(s) they use. project was surveys. Two parallel survey forms were employed: Part 4: Driver Evaluation. This section consisted of four (a) one for current CMV fleet safety managers and (b) one for questions and had the same instructions as Part 3. For other experts in motor carrier safety. These are provided in safety managers, it was titled, "How Do You Evaluate Appendices C and D, respectively. This section describes Drivers in Your Fleet?" the survey methodology in more detail, and Section 2.2 pro- Part 5: Driver Management. This section contained vides principal results. 12 questions and had the same instructions as Parts 3 and A general concern regarding most of the survey responses is 4. Even though the individual questions were parallel that they represent subjective responses to subjective ques- between the two respondent groups for Parts 3, 4, and 5, tions. A few questions were objective (e.g., questions asking the instructions for answering most of the questions safety managers whether or not they use a particular safety were different. Other experts were answering for com- management practice), but most called for subjective judg- mercial fleets and drivers in general, whereas safety man- ments by respondents. Both groups were highly qualified to agers were answering for their own practices (yes or no) render such judgments, however, so the surveys are considered and then rating effectiveness for their own fleets. to capture expert opinion. Part 5 also contained three-choice questions relating to positive, reward-based safety management practices versus "disciplinary" approaches. These questions were 2.1.1 Survey Design and Content identical on the two forms. Part 6: Comments. Three lines of blank space were pro- The safety manager and other expert survey forms con- vided on each form. Respondents were asked to com- tained 48 and 50 questions, respectively. These were divided ment on high-risk drivers and list any questions they had into seven parts: about the survey. This information on the completed forms was reviewed separately and reported selectively Part 1: How Important Is the Problem? This short sec- in this synthesis. tion included both fill-in and multiple choice ques- Part 7: Respondent Information. For other experts, the tions on the basic phenomena of individual differences last section contained two questions relating to years of in driver safety. experience and types of positions held. For safety man- Part 2: Driver Factors Associated with Risk. Questions on agers, the section contained questions on their personal both forms listed personal driver traits and, using a 5-point years of experience and the size and operation type of scale (04), asked respondents to rate the association their fleet. (correlation) of the factor with driver risk. Part 3: Driver Hiring Practices and Tools. For the other experts, this section listed eight hiring practices and asked 2.1.2 Survey Distribution and Analysis respondents to rate the effectiveness of each using the same 5-point scale. For the safety managers, the section The two forms of the survey were distributed primarily by was titled, "Which Driver Hiring Practices and Tools U.S. mail. Potential carrier safety manager respondents were Do You Regularly Use?" and included two parts for each identified primarily from the North American Truck Fleet question. First, the respondent circled "yes" or "no." Directory published by Transport Topics Press in conjunction Then, the instructions stated, "If `Yes,' please rate effec- with the American Trucking Associations, Inc. A nationwide tiveness." Consistent with these instructions, safety man- random sample of approximately 700 carriers was selected ager data for the 5-point scale were entered only if from the database accompanying the directory. In addition, respondents circled "yes" to the first part of each question. 100% samples were selected from the directory for the geo-