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7 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE SEARCH INTRODUCTION tions to evaluate the performance of certain preventive maintenance treatments; Michigan, New York, and Califor- The first step in developing a methodology for determining nia have well-established preventive maintenance programs the optimal timing of preventive maintenance was to review which are documented in comprehensive manuals. In light and assess previously completed work on this topic. As part of this broad range of experience, it is noteworthy to review of that effort, a literature search was performed and appro- the status of pavement preservation in the United States. In priate types of treatments used for preventive maintenance 1999, transportation agencies in all 50 states, the District of were identified. This chapter highlights the findings from the Columbia, Puerto Rico, and six Canadian Provinces were sur- literature search and identifies important characteristics of veyed about their preventive maintenance programs and prac- preventive maintenance treatments. tices; 41 agencies responded (10). All 41 respondents reported The literature search focused on the topics relevant to pre- using preventive treatments. Eighty-five percent (36) of the ventive maintenance application timing, specifically the fol- respondents reported having established pavement preventive lowing topics: maintenance programs, and two respondents were in the pro- cess of establishing a program. Seventeen of the respondents Concepts and implementation reported having a program in place for more than 10 years, Case studies and one agency reported practicing preventive maintenance Measurement of benefit for the past 75 years. Maintenance costs Regarding the condition of pavement when applying pre- Maintenance treatment selection and performance ventive maintenance treatments, 25 respondents said that Treatment application timing pavements were in good condition, 22 said that they were in Optimization methods poor condition, and 1 respondent said they were in very poor condition (note that respondents identified all conditions in From approximately 200 records that were reviewed, only which maintenance treatment is applied). Some respondents a few of the published reports specifically discussed treatment noted that "preventative maintenance techniques are some- timing issues, and none provided any indication of rigorous times applied to poor roads when reconstruction budgets are research into the development of guidelines for the optimal limited," and "all pavements are treated, based on the assump- timing of preventive maintenance. Nonetheless, a good deal tion that even poor pavements will receive some benefit, how- of information was available for the other areas targeted in ever small." the literature search. Some of the findings regarding the con- The confusion about preventive maintenance stems in part cepts, implementation, and state agency experience (case stud- from the fact that the condition in which a treatment is used-- ies) of preventive maintenance are highlighted in Chapter 1. not the characteristics of the treatment--is what defines the A more detailed discussion of treatment selection, usage, and treatment as "preventive." A treatment that is used to extend performance is presented later in this chapter. Benefit- and pavement life or improve functional performance may also cost-related information is included in the discussion of the be used to hold the pavement together until a rehabilitation analysis approach described in Chapter 3. Finally, the pub- or reconstruction project can be scheduled. Therefore, when lished work on optimization approaches is summarized and using a treatment as a preventive application, the following presented in Appendix B. three items must be considered: Overview of Preventive Maintenance Existing distresses to be treated, or anticipated distresses to be prevented or slowed; Experience with preventive maintenance in the United Most appropriate treatments for existing conditions; and States differs substantially among highways agencies. For Timing the treatment for best results (i.e., maximizing example, Arizona (8) and Iowa (9) have constructed test sec- performance while minimizing overall costs).