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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 527 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Integral Steel Box-Beam Pier Caps 200 mm (8 in.) concrete deck Cap beam Steel plate girders @ 3050 mm (10 ft) on center Reinforced concrete column 1830 mm (6 ft) diameter Transverse elevation

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of July 2004) OFFICERS Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs and Department of Civil and Material Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC JOHN H. REBENSDORF, Vice President, Network Planning and Operations, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando, FL MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) BETTY MONRO, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway (Chair) and Transportation Officials JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board Los Angeles C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 527 Integral Steel Box-Beam Pier Caps WAGDY G. WASSEF DUSTIN DAVIS Modjeski and Masters, Inc. Harrisburg, PA AND SRI SRITHARAN JUSTIN R. VANDER WERFF ROBERT E. ABENDROTH JULI REDMOND LOWELL F. GREIMANN Iowa State University Ames, IA S UBJECT A REAS Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 527 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project C12-54 FY'99 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08812-7 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2004112931 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2004 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $32.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 527 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP DAVID B. BEAL, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Editor NCHRP PROJECT C12-54 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges MARK RENO, Quincy Engineering, Inc., Sacramento, CA (Chair) MICHEL BRUNEAU, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, NY KAMAL ELNAHAL, U.S. Coast Guard CLEBERT M. HILES, Tennessee DOT IRAJ KASPAR, Springfield, IL KARL N. KIRKER, Washington State DOT GERALD P. SELLNER, Titusville, NJ ARUNPRAKASH M. SHIROLE, Arora and Associates, Robbinsdale, MN JOEY HARTMANN, FHWA Liaison Representative STEPHEN F. MAHER, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Lowell F. Greimann, Chairman, Department of Civil and Con- Project 12-54 by Modjeski and Masters, Inc., and the Department struction Engineering, Iowa State University of Civil and Construction Engineering of Iowa State University. Modjeski and Masters, Inc., was the contractor for this study. The The research team would like to express their gratitude to Dr. work undertaken at Iowa State University was under a subcontract John M. Kulicki, President, CEO, and Chief Engineer, Modjeski with Modjeski and Masters, Inc. Wagdy G. Wassef, Associate, and Masters, Inc., for his continuous guidance and input throughout Modjeski and Masters, Inc., was the principal investigator. The the project. other authors of this report are as follows: Seismic testing of the 1/3-scale laboratory models was conducted in the Structural Engineering Laboratory at Iowa State University Dustin Davis, Structural Designer, Modjeski and Masters, Inc. with extensive help from Mr. Doug Wood, the laboratory manager; Sri Sritharan, Assistant Professor, Iowa State University Mr. Ryan Staudt, a former ISU graduate student, currently with Justin R. Vander Werff, Former Graduate Student, Iowa State Howard R. Green Company; and several other undergraduate stu- University, currently a Structural Engineer with Superior, LLC, dent employees. in Hammond, Indiana The steel for the test specimens was fabricated by Paxton and Robert E. Abendroth, Associate Professor, Iowa State University Vierling Steel Company, Omaha, Nebraska. The research team Juli Redmond, Former Graduate Student, Iowa State Univer- acknowledges the help of Paxton and Vierling personnel, in partic- sity, currently with Calhoun-Burns and Associates, Inc. ular, the help of Mr. Brad Lehr.

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This report contains the findings of research to develop recommended details, FOREWORD design methodologies, and specifications for integral connections of steel superstruc- By David B. Beal tures to concrete intermediate piers. An example illustrating the design of the connec- Staff Officer tion of the cap beam to the girders and column is also included. The material in this Transportation Research report will be of immediate interest to bridge designers. Board An integral connection provides some degree of continuity between the substruc- ture and adjacent superstructure spans. Simple-span girders made integral with the concrete substructure provide continuity for live load and may reduce fabrication and erection costs. Continuous girders made integral with the concrete substructure can enhance seismic performance and increase underclearance. Steel highway bridges have traditionally been designed as two separate systems: the substructure and the superstructure. As such, the connection between the two has typically relied on a system consisting of anchor bolts and bearings. Although such sys- tems simplify the design process by uncoupling the computations related to the sub- structure and superstructure, there are cost, weight, and performance disadvantages. A composite steel girder bridge superstructure weighs substantially less than a con- crete superstructure. This reduction of mass in the superstructure reduces the bridge's seismic susceptibility. Nevertheless, the mass of large concrete bent caps or hammer- head piers used to support the superstructure can offset the reduced weight of the steel. Integral construction eliminates this mass, increases clearance, and provides improved aesthetics. In many cases, concrete bridge superstructures are constructed integrally with the substructure. Thus, the entire structure is treated as one system to resist loads, and lat- eral loads are distributed to adjacent piers, resulting in more economical foundations. Similar economies are possible in steel bridges by integrally connecting steel super- structures to concrete substructures. To gain these potential advantages, bridge engi- neers need design guidance based on the best information currently available. The objective of this project was to develop recommended details, design method- ologies, and specifications for integral connections of steel superstructures to concrete substructures. The report's recommendations are based on experimental verification of the effectiveness of the integral connection. Specifications and connection details to achieve the full benefits of continuity are recommended based on the physical testing and analysis. The research was performed by Modjeski and Masters, Inc., with the assistance of Iowa State University. The report fully documents the research leading to the recom- mended details and specifications. A detailed design example is included. Accom- panying CRP-CD-47 contains detailed information on the laboratory testing program.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 4 CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Research Approach 1.1 Introduction, 4 1.2 Problem Statement and Research Objective, 4 1.3 Scope of the Study, 4 1.4 Research Approach, 5 7 CHAPTER 2 Findings 2.1 State-of-the-Art Summary, 7 2.1.1 State of Practice, 7 2.1.2 Summary of Literature Review, 8 2.2 Feasible Integral Pier Concepts, 9 2.3 Prototype Bridge Configuration and Design, 9 2.3.1 Configuration, 9 2.3.2 Design, 9 2.4 Test Specimen Configuration and Testing, 10 2.4.1 Test Specimen Configuration, 10 2.4.2 Design Details, 11 2.4.3 Instrumentation, 12 2.4.4 Seismic Load Simulation, 13 2.5 Test Results, 13 2.5.1 Seismic Test Results, 13 2.5.2 Simulated Service Load Testing, 15 19 CHAPTER 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Application 3.1 Feasibility, 19 3.2 Proposed Design Methodology, 19 3.2.1 Method of Analysis, 19 3.2.2 Design and Anchoring of the Column-to-Pier Cap Connection, 20 3.2.3 Connection between the Girders and the Pier Cap, 22 3.2.4 Box-Beam Pier Cap Design, 22 3.3 Construction Recommendations, 22 24 CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 4.1 Conclusions, 24 4.2 Suggested Research, 24 25 REFERENCES 26 APPENDIXES A through H I-1 APPENDIX I Design Example