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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 105 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of July 2004) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of June 2004) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA SHARON GREENE Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Sharon Greene & Associates Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MEMBERS KAREN ANTION Karen Antion Consulting MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LINDA J. BOHLINGER SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC HNTB Corp. E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN PETER A. CANNITO GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, Metropolitan Transit Authority--Metro-North Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles Railroad GREGORY COOK BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority Ann Arbor Transportation Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JENNIFER L. DORN JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL FTA GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR. ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Metropolitan Atlanta RTA RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments RONALD L. FREELAND HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT Parsons Transportation Group SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and FRED M. GILLIAM Public Affairs and Department of Civil and Material Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute KIM R. GREEN GFI GENFARE of Technology JILL A. HOUGH CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT North Dakota State University JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT ROBERT H. IRWIN DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC British Columbia Transit JOHN H. REBENSDORF, Vice Pres., Network Planning and Operations, Union Pacific Railroad Co., JEANNE W. KRIEG Omaha, NE Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT CELIA G. KUPERSMITH C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Transportation District PAUL J. LARROUSSE Orlando, FL National Transit Institute DAVID A. LEE EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Connecticut Transit MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT CLARENCE W. MARSELLA SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT Denver Regional Transportation District REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA FAYE L. M. MOORE Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy Authority of Engineering MICHAEL H. MULHERN THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT DMJM+Harris WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG BETTY MONRO, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT BEVERLY A. SCOTT Sacramento Regional Transit District SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA PAUL P. SKOUTELAS JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Port Authority of Allegheny County ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT KATHRYN D. WATERS WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps EX OFFICIO MEMBERS of Engineers WILLIAM W. MILLAR ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space APTA MARY E. PETERS Administration FHWA JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA (Chair) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT LOUIS F. SANDERS GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, Los Angeles APTA WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association SECRETARY ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando, FL

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 105 Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged TRANSYSTEMS CORPORATION Boston, MA CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Tampa, FL INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Raleigh, NC AND PLANNERS COLLABORATIVE Boston, MA S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 105 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project H-30A FY'02 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-088135 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2004113994 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2004 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $31.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research Special Notice program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit expected products. Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and project reporting. provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager DIANNE S. SCHWAGER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Editor PROJECT PANEL H-24A Field of Policy and Planning REGINALD KNOWLTON, WHEELS, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (Chair) BILL DURANT, Paratransit, Inc., Sacramento, CA LISA FUNK, Michigan DOT SHARON LORD GABER, Auburn University, Auburn, AL MARY KEATING, DuPage County Human Services, Wheaton, IL JAMES MCLARY, McLary Management & Investment, Alexandria, VA JAMES F. MCLAUGHLIN, Urbitran, Glendale, CA JON B. MCNULTY, Regional Transportation Program, Portland, ME HELEN TIFT MCSWAIN, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA JOHN L. SHERMYEN, LogisticCare Solutions LLC, College Park, GA DOUG BIRNIE, FTA Liaison Representative DOUG GERLEMAN, FTA Liaison Representative DIANNE MCSWAIN, U.S. Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, Other Liaison Representative PETER SHAW, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research for this report, or resource guide, was performed Planners Collaborative researched and prepared Chapter 5. Case under TCRP Project H-30 by TranSystems Corporation, with assis- studies were conducted and summarized by Mr. Chia, Mr. Cook, tance from the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) Ms. Conklin, Mr. Hamwey, Mr. Lawrie, Rosemary G. Mathias of of the University of South Florida, the Institute for Transportation TranSystems, and Beverly G. Ward of CUTR. All team members Research and Education (ITRE) of North Carolina State University, made significant contributions to the selection of case study sites and Planners Collaborative. TranSystems was the prime contractor and the identification of the coordination strategies that are used as for the project. examples throughout the report. Patricia Monahan of TranSystems was the project's principal The team would like to thank the project panel for offering use- investigator and was responsible for the overall direction of the ful guidance and direction that reflected the breadth of their experi- research. She wrote the summary, Chapters 1 through 3 and sections ences and viewpoints. Dianne Schwager, TCRP Senior Program of the remaining chapters and edited the document. Thomas J. Cook Officer, provided much appreciated support and assistance through- and Judson J. Lawrie of ITRE researched and prepared substantial out the project. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the valuable sections of Chapters 4, 6, and 7 and developed Appendix C. Joana contributions of the many individuals from transportation and Conklin of TranSystems also contributed to Chapter 6; and she pre- human services organizations who hosted case studies and partici- pared Appendices D, E, and F. David Chia and Scott Hamwey of pated in telephone interviews.

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TCRP Report 105: Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services FOREWORD for the Transportation Disadvantaged will be of interest to practitioners and policy- By Dianne S. Schwager makers in agencies and organizations that plan, provide, administer, and fund trans- Senior Program Officer portation services for persons with disabilities, clients of human services agencies, and Transportation Research others who can be described as transportation disadvantaged. The research results are Board presented in a report and on an accompanying CD-ROM. During the past 20 years, a great deal of effort has been directed to improving coor- dination of publicly funded transportation services for the transportation disadvan- taged. These services include transportation for persons with disabilities, clients of human services agencies, recipients of Medicaid, participants in Headstart programs, and others with special needs who can be described as transportation disadvantaged. The United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) have worked together for more than a decade to foster increased coordination among the transportation services sponsored by each agency. Several states have followed suit and are pursuing improved coordination of their transportation services. Despite the progress that has been made, there are still many more opportunities throughout the United States to improve the local and regional coordination of trans- portation services for the transportation disadvantaged. Duplication of services, insuf- ficient funds, unmet trip demand, numerous regulatory constraints, lack of interagency coordination, and poor service quality still exist. Service area boundaries often preclude trips from being made by publicly funded transportation to important destinations, such as medical facilities, jobs, and training. In addition, rapid growth and suburbanization in many communities have made it far more costly and difficult to provide accessibil- ity by publicly funded transportation to many destinations. Under TCRP Project H-30, "Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged," the research team of TranSystems Cor- poration, in association with the Institute for Transportation Research and Education, and Planners Collaborative, conducted the research project. The objective of the research was to develop strategies for initiating or improving coordination of local and regional pub- licly funded transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged. The results of this research may be used throughout the United States by public transportation agencies, human resources agencies, transportation brokers, planning organizations, and other organizations and entities seeking methods and concepts that can be used to initiate or improve the local or regional coordination of publicly funded transportation services. The study included the following elements: Documentation of current funding sources, decision-making processes, and ser- vice types that can be utilized by entities wishing to improve the coordination of their transportation services;

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New case studies highlighting approaches and strategies not investigated to date; Collection of updated information about previous case study sites that have been shown to illustrate the benefits of coordination and/or important elements of suc- cessful strategies; and Analysis of existing and new case study information to identify overall themes, elements of success, and recommended approaches. The research report is presented in seven chapters that present (1) an introduction that includes a "road map" to the final report; (2) a history of transportation coordina- tion in the United States; (3) a discussion of current coordination trends and challenges; (4) a review of transportation services and options; (5) the processes used to plan, bud- get, and promote coordinated transportation services; (6) a review of funding sources; and (7) information on technology and its application to transportation coordination. Most chapters are supported by case studies. TCRP Report 105 includes six appendixes presented on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-51). Complete case studies can be found in Appendix A. Appendix B consists of a questionnaire that can be used to inventory providers of transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged. Information about state funding sources is provided in Appendix C. Appendixes D and E contain information about private foundations and foundation grant resources. An index of previously published coordination case studies and guidebooks, organized by topic, is presented in Appendix F.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 8 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Study Objectives, 8 Research Methodology, 8 Road Map to the Resource Guide, 10 13 CHAPTER 2 Coordination History Early Coordination Efforts: Initiatives at the Local Level, 13 Support for Coordination at the Federal Level, 14 State and Regional Coordination Efforts, 15 17 CHAPTER 3 Current Coordination Trends and Challenges Defining and Classifying Coordination Strategies, 17 Summary of Case Study Findings, 18 31 CHAPTER 4 Transportation Services and Operations Mobility Needs, 31 Providers, 31 Types of Service, 32 Service Delivery Methods, 33 Models for Coordinated Services, 33 How To Locate Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged in Your Area, 35 Examples of Best Practices from Case Studies, 36 Other Service Design Resources, 40 41 CHAPTER 5 Processes Used to Plan, Budget, and Promote Planning Requirements Associated with Funding Sources, 41 Political Processes, 48 Examples of Best Practices from Case Studies, 52 Advice from Practitioners, 53 Other Coordination Planning Resources, 53 55 CHAPTER 6 Funding Sources Types of Funding, 55 Identifying Funding Sources, 68 Advice from Practitioners and Other Resources, 70 71 CHAPTER 7 Use of Technology Case Studies, 71 Advice from Practitioners, 73 Other Technology Resources, 74 75 REFERENCES 76 GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS A-1 APPENDIXES