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10 The list that resulted was quite long. To facilitate selection transportation-disadvantaged individuals, using the informa- of the best examples and to ensure that case study recom- tion compiled through the various research efforts and from mendations covered a range of strategies and environments, the case study subjects. The Guide is intended to be of use to the team collectively developed a set of selection criteria. public and private transportation and human services organi- These included the following: zations that fund, operate, purchase, or use transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged. Innovation Topics covered in the Resource Guide include the following: Documented benefits Freshness (not previously documented) Current trends and innovative strategies Transferability to other areas Transportation service delivery options Operational longevity Planning and decision-making processes associated with transportation and human services funding programs Ideally, each potential case study would have all of these Opportunities for political involvement and tools for features. transportation advocacy In addition, the following attributes were identified for each Funding sources and their requirements case study site, so that the final list of candidates would be suf- Use of technology to coordinate the operation of trans- ficiently varied: portation services Geographic region Readers will also learn how to identify potential sources Service area characteristics--urban, suburban, rural, of funding and to inventory local transportation providers. statewide The document is organized as follows: Lead/participating agencies--public and nonprofit trans- portation providers, human services agencies, MPOs, Chapter 1 has introduced the reader to TCRP Project state DOTs H-30 and the Resource Guide. Client groups/trip types served--older adults; people Chapter 2 reviews the history of coordination efforts at with disabilities; low-income individuals; human ser- the federal, state, and regional levels. vices agency clients; students; medical, job access, hu- Chapter 3 defines coordination, presents a continuum man services program trips to describe the range of coordination actions, and sum- Service provider types--public, private, nonprofit marizes the lessons learned from the experience of the Transportation modes--fixed route, paratransit, volun- 22 case study sites. teer drivers, taxi, vanpool Chapter 4 reviews different service delivery models for Organizational levels--state, regional, local coordinated transportation systems. Chapter 5 describes typical planning and decision- An evaluation matrix that combined the selection criteria, making processes. Chapter 6 discusses potential funding sources. other considerations, and several descriptive fields was Chapter 7 explores the role of technology in coordinat- constructed. Each team member then entered what he/she thought were the best coordination examples from the origi- ing transportation operations. nal long list into the matrix and indicated whether the system or practice was recommended for a full or minicase study. Each chapter also includes advice from coordination prac- titioners and references to additional resources. The team then discussed the completed matrix. As a result, Throughout the Resource Guide, effective coordination several coordination efforts were moved from the category strategies and approaches are illustrated by case studies, mini of full case study to that of minicase study, or vice versa. case studies, and examples drawn from the experience of Also, it seemed that several groups of minicase study can- organizations that have planned and implemented coordina- didates would be more interesting if clustered than if studied tion initiatives. individually. Additional material is given in the appendices on the The research team then recommended case study sites to accompanying CD-ROM. Complete case studies can be the project panel members, who suggested several modifica- found in Appendix A. Appendix B consists of a question- tions. The final list of selected sites is presented in Table 2 naire that can be used to inventory providers of transporta- and shown on the map in Figure 1. tion services for the transportation disadvantaged. Informa- tion about state funding sources is provided in Appendix C. ROAD MAP TO THE RESOURCE GUIDE Appendix D and Appendix E contain information about pri- vate foundations and foundation grant resources. An index of This Resource Guide presents practical guidance for increas- previously published coordination case studies and guide- ing coordination among transportation services that target books, organized by topic, is presented in Appendix F.

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11 TABLE 2 Case study sites Aaron E. Henry Community Health Center/Delta Area Rural Transit System, Mississippi Greater Twin Cities United Way, Minnesota King County Metro Community Partnerships Program (CPP), Washington State Massachusetts Human Service Transportation Office Michigan Welfare-to-Work Program and Midland County RIDES Mass Transit District (MTD), Illinois Space Coast Area Transit (SCAT), Florida Baldwin County Public Transit Coalition, Alabama Oklahoma Department of Rehabilitative Services Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments (TMACOG), Ohio Client Referral, Ridership, and Financial Tracking System (CRRAFT), State of New Mexico Ottumwa Transit Authority, Iowa St. Louis Transportation Management Association, Missouri ACCESS Transportation Systems, Pennsylvania Cross County Transit, North Carolina DuPage County Taxi Subsidy Program, Illinois Flint MTA, Michigan Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG), Regional Action Plan on Aging and Mobility, Arizona Massachusetts Rehabilitation Commission, Transportation Options Project (TOP) MichiVan--Nontraditional Vanpool Program, Michigan Washington State Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation and Thurston County (ACCT) York County Transit Authority/rabbittransit, Pennsylvania

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12 Thurston King County Metro Community Partnerships Program County Washington Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation Massachusetts Human Service Greater Twin Cities United Way Transportation Office Michigan Welfare-to-Work Program and Midland County Flint MTA DuPage County Taxi Subsidy Program MichiVan Program ACCESS Transportation Systems Toledo Metropolitan Area Council York County Transit Authority Ottumwa Transit Authority of Governments St. Louis Transportation Management Association Alliance for RIDES Mass Transit District Transportation Research Oklahoma Department of Rehabilitation Services Cross County Transit Maricopa Association of Governments Aaron E Henry Community Health Center Regional Action Plan on Aging and Mobility Delta Area Rural Transportation Center Baldwin County Public Transit Coalition Space Coast Area Transit Case Studies Coalition-Building Clustered Mini-Case Studies Use of Technology Clustered Mini-Case Studies Full Case Studies Mini Case Studies Figure 1. Case study locations.