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32 Transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged may be provided by a wide variety of entities, such as the following: York County Transit Authority, or rabbittransit, is a municipal authority serving York County, Pennsylvania. It operates fixed-route bus and flexible services as well as demand-responsive service for ADA-eligible individuals and clients of a number of human services agencies. Rider groups for whom the transit authority provides service include seniors, Medicaid recipients, individuals with developmental disabilities, low- income individuals, and job access clients. Wake County in North Carolina created the Wake County Transportation System (WCTS) over a decade ago to serve the growing accessibility needs of the county's transportation-dependent citizens. It operates as a unit of the County Department of Human Services and provides door-to-door service for clients of that Department as well as clients of other human services agencies in the community. It also provides limited service for the general public in rural areas of the county. The County owns the vehicles and contracts with a private vendor to manage and operate the service. The Urban Rural Transportation Alliance in Maryland, also known as URTA, is an example of a private nonprofit human services transportation provider. URTA serves both urban and rural areas in central Maryland with mostly curb-to-curb trips to medical, employment, and other destinations. URTA provides medical transportation for Medicaid clients, an HMO, and other local human service organizations. Ride Connection, a nonprofit agency in Portland, Oregon, was created to provide a more usable transportation system for older adults and people with disabilities than the local public transit operator, Tri-Met, was able to provide. It includes a network of over 30 agencies, utilizes a variety of funds from both public sources and private foundations and businesses, and involves more than 300 volunteers in providing the service. Wheels of Wellness of Philadelphia is a nonprofit medical transportation brokerage. Wheels serves the primarily urban areas surrounding Philadelphia: five counties in Pennsylvania and four counties in New Jersey. Because Wheels is a brokerage, it is able to offer many types of services, including volunteer car service, taxi service, fixed-route public transit, and demand-responsive door-to-door service. Wheels provides Medicaid, Ryan White Title I, and general volunteer medical transportation services. Through its Community Transportation Program, American Red Cross of Greater Columbus provides rides for seniors, people with disabilities, and other individuals to medical facilities and other destinations to in Franklin County, Ohio. Volunteer drivers operate Red Cross vehicles. A variety of human services agencies, as well as Red Cross and United Way, subsidize the cost of transportation for eligible individuals. Figure 3. Providers of transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged. transportation services to support their primary program goals, Community Organizations often because of a lack of public transit service in the area or specific transit service gaps. Funding organizations like the United Way often provide For example, local senior centers often provide transpor- resources to local agencies that enable them to provide trans- tation to and from the center to enable seniors to participate portation and other services that support United Way's focus in nutrition programs and other activities. There are usually areas. In some areas, organizations such as the American Red one or more organizations in a given area that provide resi- Cross and veterans' agencies operate transportation services dential or day program and employment services to individ- for medical trips and other purposes. Faith-based groups are uals with developmental disabilities or mental retardation; another source of transportation services, particularly in the these organizations often provide transportation service to area of job access transportation. program sites. At the state level, agencies that administer Medicaid and job access or workforce development programs TYPES OF SERVICE typically provide (either by operating, purchasing, or subsidiz- ing) transportation services that make it possible for clients to The mobility needs of transportation-disadvantaged indi- access programs and services. viduals can be addressed through a wide range of service types The transportation services a human services agency pro- and strategies. At one end of the range are efforts to make tra- vides may be open only to its own clients or may also be avail- ditional fixed-route service more attractive or useful for the able to the clients of other agencies. transportation disadvantaged. At the other end are more indi-