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48 Some rural regions have shared maintenance facilities. In chapter by participating in needs assessment surveys if asked Mason County, there is a coordinated call center. The lead and can keep abreast of current priorities by requesting a agency also varies by region. In Thurston County, it is the copy of the most recent needs assessment report. MPO. In other areas, it is the public transit agency. The ACCT As described in Chapter 6, private foundations may be a administrator admitted that the lack of a mandate often means source of funding for projects designed to increase the coordi- that coordination works best in regions where there is a suffi- nation of transportation services for the transportation disad- cient amount of "peer pressure." Some areas are much more vantaged. There are two aspects of funding from foundations successful than others, with the most common denominator in to be aware of as planning for a transportation coordination success being the presence of a strong leader at the regional initiative proceeds. level. The variety of approaches means that Washington can First, foundation funds are generally awarded to programs serve as a real laboratory for the effectiveness of different or projects that advance the foundation's central goals, usually methods. However, the reliance on strong leadership is dis- based on responses to a competitive solicitation. Research- couraging, because it sends the message that the individuals ing a particular foundation's goals and current priority areas involved--rather than the particular approach--determine should be an initial planning task. success or failure. Another important planning step should be to identify the One statewide success that the administrator pointed to is types of organizations that are eligible to receive grants from ACCT's efforts at working with the state in the application a particular foundation. Because public agencies may not be for a recent JARC grant. After the state decided to submit the eligible, a not-for-profit coordination partner may need to application, as opposed to several individual agencies doing take the lead role and submit the grant application. (As an so, ACCT played a key role in ensuring that the application added incentive for working collaboratively, foundations often appropriately addressed coordination. WorkFirst (Washing- view grant applications from partnerships or collaboratives ton's TANF/Welfare-to-Work agency) put up the matching more favorably than those from single entities.) funds. ACCT receives money from the grant through an ear- Most foundations have specific guidelines for grant-seeking mark, and the funds are used to ensure that the JARC-funded organizations--these guidelines vary by foundation. However, transportation services are part of a coordinated plan. grant-seeking organizations might expect to provide some or In Washington, Medicaid operates on a regional brokered all of the following pieces of information to foundations: system. Some of the regional brokers of Medicaid service want to be involved in transportation coordination. However, The purpose of the project for which funds are being according to the ACCT administrator, the state's Medical requested Assistance Administration is reluctant to relinquish control Problems and issues the proposed project will address of the funds. The ACCT administrator suggested that this is Estimated project budget a different scenario than in many other states, as it is the state A list of other sources of secured and potential funding and not local entities that has prevented coordination from for the project including the Medicaid program. Detailed project schedule and implementation plan Plans for evaluating program accomplishments If foundation funds will be sought for a transportation coor- Planning Processes Used by Private Funding Sources dination initiative, transportation providers and other partici- pants should ensure that planning for the initiative includes Sources of private funding also undertake planning pro- these items. cesses to establish agendas, determine priorities, and provide the basis for funding decisions. Local chapters of the United Way, for example, typically conduct a comprehensive needs POLITICAL PROCESSES assessment every 3 years to identify areas in which local organizations believe needs of target populations are not Support and funding for coordination of transportation being adequately met. The needs assessment can include services at the federal, state, and local levels can be a crucial research conducted with focus groups and surveys of ser- factor in the success of local coordination efforts. Equally vice providers and human services professionals; those con- important is the degree of local public support for public sulted usually include individuals from nonmember as well transportation and transportation services for the transpor- as United Way member agencies. Transportation providers tation disadvantaged. The following sections discuss ways and human services agencies with an interest in transporta- in which organizations that are pursuing coordination can work tion services for the transportation disadvantaged can have for advantageous policies, programs, and funding sources input into the priorities established by the local United Way to enhance their efforts and create public awareness of, and

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49 support for, the benefits that coordinated transportation ser- the resources available to continue to further coordination vices can offer. efforts through traditional transportation funding sources. CTAA is also a source of information and tools that local organizations can use to contact elected representatives about National Opportunities for Political Involvement issues that affect public transportation providers, especially and Tools for Advocacy those that operate community-based or specialized services. As described below, local organizations can become For example, CTAA tracks federal legislative developments involved in efforts to shape transportation policy at the fed- and posts information and suggested actions on its website, eral level and build general support for public transportation www.ctaa.org. A recent alert concerned the filing of the Max- through industry associations and by following new federal imum Economic Growth for America through Rural, Elderly legislative developments and proposed funding programs. and Disabled Transit Investment Act, designed to increase resources for transit service and other transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged in nonurbanized areas. A CTAA Community Transportation Local Action Campaign included sample e-mails and letters on topics such as reauthorization CTAA is a national, professional membership association of the federal transit legislation, service for seniors, and med- of organizations and individuals involved in community ical transportation; related background materials; Congres- transportation, which is defined by CTAA as transportation sional addresses and phone numbers; and advice from expe- service that addresses the transit needs of the entire commu- rienced transportation managers. All materials and guidance nity, including both the general public and special popula- were available on CTAA's website. tions. CTAA conducts research, provides technical assis- Another way in which CTAA is working to encourage tance, offers educational programs, and serves as an advocate improved coordination efforts is through its annual meeting. in order to make community transportation available, afford- For example, a key component of CTAA's 2003 Expo was able, and accessible. CTAA has over 1,400 members, includ- the National Summit on Transportation Coordination. CTAA ing many providers of transportation services for the trans- used this forum to look carefully at the barriers and create an portation disadvantaged and human services agencies. As environment where frank discussion of the topic could occur. mentioned earlier, CTAA is an excellent resource for orga- One product of the summit was the development of a list of nizations that have an interest in, or questions about, the pro- recommendations to be forwarded to federal agencies whose vision of transportation services. missions are relevant to the issue of improved coordination CTAA is undertaking efforts to work for new policies and for the transportation disadvantaged. programs in support of coordination of transportation ser- vices. One aspect of this work is the organization's ongoing lobbying efforts in Congress with regard to reauthorization National Consortium on the Coordination of the federal surface transportation authorization bill, due in of Human Services Transportation fiscal year 2004. This effort, which CTAA refers to as its National Transit Renewal Program, aims to secure improve- The National Consortium, formed in 2003 by the Coordi- ments for CTAA member organizations that are consistent nating Council on Access and Mobility2 and supported by sev- with CTAA's four basic principles: eral federal agencies, is made up of a number of nonprofit organizations that represent providers of human services trans- Investment: Greater federal investment for all commu- portation, users of such services, or state and local govern- nity and public transportation programs ments. The Consortium's goal is to disseminate information Innovation: New and innovative strategies for commu- about the coordination of transportation services to policy- nity and public transportation makers as well as to professionals in both the transportation Security: Providing communities of all sizes the capac- and human services fields. For example, a survey of Medic- ity to respond to natural and national disasters aid nonemergency transportation in each state was released Building New Partnerships: All regulatory burdens placed in December 2003. Planned products include legislative briefs on the community and public transportation field must be on coordination and a coordination guide for state legislators examined to ensure necessity and efficiency and serve as and other officials. a foundation for a new partnership between the federal More information about the Consortium is available at government and public and community transportation www.ctaa.org/ntrc/is_coordination.asp. CTAA's success in translating these goals, in particular the 2 A federal interagency group formed in 1986 as the Joint Department of Health and last one, into federal policies through its National Transit Human Services/Department of Transportation Coordinating Council on Human Ser- Renewal Program will be an important factor in determining vices Transportation.

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50 United We Ride human services organizations (although some transportation providers belong to both organizations). Several recent APTA In late 2003, four federal departments--DOT, DHHS, initiatives may be of interest to organizations pursuing coor- DOL, and Education--introduced a new human services trans- dination of transportation services for the transportation dis- portation coordination initiative entitled United We Ride. advantaged or working to move transportation issues to a United We Ride includes five components designed to higher priority on local planning or funding agendas. make coordination of human services transportation easier and more rewarding for states and local communities to pursue. Communities in Motion. National market research has A Framework for Action: Building the Fully Coordinated determined that the theme of "community benefit built on Transportation System is an assessment tool that can be used personal opportunity" is a meaningful way to promote public by states or community organizations to determine how well transportation, even to those who do not need or use it. Based local transportation services measure up to the ideal of a fully on a research effort that included a national telephone survey coordinated transportation system. and detailed discussions with small groups, only about one- A Framework for Action includes a series of modules for half of the public is familiar with the public transportation ser- both communities and states, each of which focuses on one vices in their local areas; about one-quarter has no knowledge aspect of a fully coordinated human services transportation about them. Moreover, people tend to be more concerned system. Modules for local communities include the following: about other issues than about public transportation. However, when public transportation is promoted in a way that empha- Making Things Happen by Working Together sizes the mobility, freedom, and access to opportunities that Taking Stock of Community Needs and Moving Forward it can provide for all members of a community, even nonsup- Putting Customers First porters become more favorably disposed toward it (7). Adapting Funding for Greater Mobility APTA has developed an outreach campaign based on this Moving People Efficiently theme, known as Communities in Motion, and a toolkit for transit systems and other organizations to use as they plan State-level modules cover the following topics: and conduct Communities in Motion activities. While some of the information in the toolkit specifically applies to transit Making Things Happen by Leadership and Partnership service, many of the activities, events, and graphics could be Taking Stock of State Needs and Moving Forward used with equal success to increase awareness of transporta- Putting Customers First tion services for the transportation disadvantaged, coordina- Adapting Funding for Greater Mobility tion issues, and achievements. Technology Moves Coordination to the Next Level The stated goals of the campaign, to quote APTA's web- Moving People Efficiently site (8), are as follows: Each module features a question that is central to the mod- Build public support for public transportation by increas- ule's topic, statements to help participants rate state or local ing awareness of how public transportation improves progress, and a standardized rating scale. A facilitator's guide quality of life--providing opportunity, freedom, mobil- provides step-by-step assistance with the process of bringing ity and access for all citizens. a group together and using the tool to conduct an assessment. Increase appreciation for public transportation's contri- A Framework for Action is available at www.fta.dot.gov/ butions to communities. CCAM/United_We_Ride.html. Recognize elected officials who have been supportive The other four elements of United We Ride are awards to states that have achieved successes in human services trans- of public transportation initiatives. Reach out and involve local groups and individuals that portation coordination, a National Leadership Forum on Human Services Transportation Coordination (held in Feb- have a vital interest in public transportation's local, state ruary 2004), a coordination grant program for states, and and federal legislative goals. Communicate the importance of investment in public technical assistance activities for states and local communi- ties known collectively as Help Along the Way. transportation. At the National Leadership Forum held in February 2004, five states received the first State Leadership Awards: Florida, APTA's website also contains an online version of the Maryland, North Carolina, Ohio, and Washington. toolkit. It includes the following: Communication tools, providing facts and message APTA points about the impact that public transportation has on communities, for use in speeches, press releases, and APTA assists public transportation providers in much the discussions with local elected officials. same way as CTAA does for community transportation and Suggested activities and community events.

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51 An official Communities in Motion logo, with instruc- programs or decisions. However, in many cases they target tions for duplicating and using the logo in a number of the same population groups as those served by the agencies different applications. attempting to further the cause of coordination, suggesting that these agencies may have an opportunity to tap into new The home page for Communities in Motion is http://www. funding streams that may be created. apta.com/CIM/index.html. APTA Access and Legislative Committees. Several APTA Opportunities for Political Involvement committees have established subcommittees that focus on at the State Level coordination issues. The APTA Access Committee has formed a Coordination Subcommittee, which keeps abreast of devel- Transportation and human services organizations can also opments in coordination initiatives at the federal level between become involved locally in transportation policy develop- DHHS and FTA. The Coordination and Sustainability Sub- ment. Efforts to pass state and local ballot initiatives for committee of APTA's Legislative Committee also tracks rel- transportation service funding offer an excellent opportunity evant developments at the federal level, such as the recent for coalition-building and advocacy, even if the main pur- study on transportation coordination conducted by the General pose of the initiative is not to advance coordinated services. Accounting Office. In addition to reporting to their sponsor committees on the status of relevant agency and legislative activities, these groups help to develop industry responses State Transit Associations to federal actions related to coordination, share information At the state level, one of the best ways for a local organi- with APTA members and other interested organizations, and zation to participate in public transportation policy develop- formulate recommended strategies for enhancing coordina- ment and coalition-building is by becoming involved with tion efforts. that state's transit association. Typically made up of trans- Legislative Conference. Each year in March, APTA spon- portation providers and human services agencies (with trans- sors a legislative conference during which attendees can portation suppliers and vendors often involved as associate hear updates on legislative developments, participate in the members), state transit associations provide opportunities development of APTA's legislative agenda, and call on their such as the following: own Congressional representatives to discuss transportation Networking with peers at periodic meetings and con- achievements and issues of concern. ferences. Presenting unified positions on possible actions to fed- Public Transportation Partnership for Tomorrow. APTA also participates in Public Transportation Partnership for eral and state legislators. Participating in events that highlight public transporta- Tomorrow, referred to as (PT)2. Composed of transit author- ities, state DOTs, transit associations, and businesses, the aim tion's contribution to local communities. of (PT)2 is to highlight the benefits that public transportation generates, build support for public transportation services at all levels, and increase public transportation funding at the State and Local Ballot Initiatives federal level. Similar to the outreach campaigns of APTA In recent years, there have been numerous transportation and CTAA, (PT)2 provides legislative alerts, news bulletins, funding ballot measures at the state and local level. In 2002 educational materials, and other information on its website, alone, there were 9 statewide and 32 local or regional ballot www.publictransportation.org. The (PT)2 site can also be questions to fund transportation projects. Only in a few mea- accessed through APTA's website. sures, however, was there a specified component dedicated to specialized or coordinated transportation. Proposed Federal Programs and According to the Surface Transportation Policy Project Judicial/Legislative Developments (STPP), the use of direct ballots to fund transportation marks a significant change from the traditional method of financing, In addition to the state and regional opportunities to fund away from user fees approved by the legislature (primarily coordination efforts discussed earlier in this section, recent gasoline taxes) and toward voter-approved general revenue years have produced a series of federal initiatives, court deci- taxes, such as sales taxes and bonds (9). The proposed fund- sions, and legislation that address, at least peripherally, the ing source for nearly one-half of the 2002 ballot questions needs of the transportation disadvantaged. Several of these (20 of 41) was a local sales tax. Other proposed funding are described in Chapter 5. Coordination of transportation ser- sources included property taxes, bonds, or some combination vices is not identified as a specific objective of any of these of these sources.