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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 521 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2004 (Membership as of July 2004) OFFICERS Chair: Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Vice Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC E. DEAN CARLSON, Director, Carlson Associates, Topeka, KS JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center and Professor, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs and Department of Civil and Material Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC JOHN H. REBENSDORF, Vice President, Network Planning and Operations, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando, FL MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) BETTY MONRO, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Program Manager of Public Health Applications, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway (Chair) and Transportation Officials JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board Los Angeles C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 521 Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management MARIE VENNER Venner Consulting Littleton, CO AND MARC LEISENRING DAN PANKANI ERIC STRECKER GeoSyntec Consultants Portland, OR S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Energy and Environment Pavement Design, Management, and Performance Highway and Facility Design Maintenance Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2004 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 521 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project B25-20(2) FY'03 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08815-1 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2004114422 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2004 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $25.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 521 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Editor NCHRP PROJECT B25-20(2) PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Impact Analysis HAROLD G. HUNT, California DOT (Chair) EDWIN F. DRABKOWSKI, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EDWIN F. HERRICKS, University of Illinois--Urbana-Champaign EDWARD MOLASH, Washington State DOT VINCENT J. PALUMBO, Rhode Island DOT RICHARD E. PRICE, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers MARK E. SENGENBERGER, Adirondack Park Agency, Ray Brook, NY WILLIAM J. SNODGRASS, City of Toronto CARLOS H. SWONKE, Turner, Collie, and Braden, Inc., Austin, TX RAJABABU VEERAMACHANENI, Maryland State Highway Administration FRED G. BANK, FHWA Liaison Representative KIMBERLY FISHER, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Proj- Consulting, and Eric Strecker, GeoSyntec Consultants, were the prin- ect 25-20(02) by GeoSyntec Consultants of Portland, Oregon, and cipal investigators. Marc Leisenring and Dan Pankani of GeoSyntec Venner Consulting of Littleton, Colorado. Marie Venner, Venner also authored the report.

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This report presents an analysis of research needs in the area of highway water FOREWORD runoff management and control. Research directors and water-quality professionals By Christopher J. Hedges from state departments of transportation (DOTs) participated in a survey to identify Staff Officer pressing needs related to the impacts and control of stormwater runoff. The survey Transportation Research results were supplemented with an extensive literature review and analysis by the Board research team. This report will be of great value in formulating high-priority research efforts at the national, state, and local levels. The effect of polluted runoff on water quality is an important concern for federal, state, and local agencies with a stake in the planning, design, construction, and main- tenance of transportation facilities. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys- tem (NPDES) regulations (40 CFR 122 & 123) require the management of sources and impacts of contamination from runoff on municipal stormwater systems. In addition, highway runoff management techniques must be consistent with the objectives of non- point source control programs under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act and state coastal nonpoint pollution control plans developed under Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments. Therefore, water-quality information and data are needed to manage runoff and comply with the NPDES and other regulations. At its meeting in March 1998, the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR) met to review and select projects for the FY1999 NCHRP program. SCOR noted that there were 10 different problem statements the dealt with the impacts and management of highway runoff. SCOR directed NCHRP to convene a panel of experts to investigate the existing state of practice; identify research issues, gaps and needs; undertake research on high-priority topics; and recommend projects for future funding. The first effort initiated by the panel was Project 25-20, which produced a report entitled "Management of Runoff from Surface Transportation Facilities: Synthesis and Research Plan," from GKY and Associates, Inc., published in March 2001 as NCHRP Web Document 37. The report was accompanied by the "Water Quality Knowledge Database," on CD-ROM. Based in part on the recommendations of the GKY study, the panel then initiated Project 25-20(01) "Evaluation of Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff Control." This project was contracted to Oregon State University and is scheduled for completion in the spring of 2004. Under NCHRP Project 25-20(02), "Identification of Research Needs Related to Highway Runoff Management," a research team led by Marie Venner and Eric Strecker undertook this follow-up effort to supplement and update the GKY effort with a review of the most current research findings. The report summarizes the significant stormwa- ter management practices and research efforts, and it identifies the most pressing gaps

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and needs in the current state of knowledge in over 30 subject areas. The team devel- oped full research project statements for the topics considered to be of highest priority. This report will be of great interest in pursuing research to improve the ability of state DOTs and other road agencies to implement an effective stormwater runoff man- agement program.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 40 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1. Regulatory Environment for State Departments of Transportation, 40 1.2. Summary of GKY Study and Gaps, 41 1.3. Goals and Objectives of NCHRP 25-20(02), 43 1.4. Research Methodology, 43 48 CHAPTER 2 Department of Transportation Research Preferences 2.1. Top-Ranked Areas of Needed Research: Stormwater Control Facilities and Programs, 48 2.2. Watershed Approaches, 50 2.3. Runoff Characterization, 51 2.4. Impacts to Receiving Waters, 51 2.5. Areas for Further Research Identified by Departments of Transportation, 52 57 CHAPTER 3 Review of Published Literature and Potential Research Needs 3.1. Brief Review of Recent Major Syntheses of Highway Runoff/Urban Stormwater Quality Research, 57 3.2. Evaluation of Stormwater Control Facilities and Programs, 63 3.3. Watershed-Based Approaches, 94 3.4. Highway Runoff Characterization and Assessment, 98 3.5. Receiving Waters Impact Assessment, 122 136 CHAPTER 4 Summary of Identified Research Gaps and Needs 143 MASTER BIBLIOGRAPHY A-1 APPENDIX A State Department of Transportation Survey and Ranking of Research Preferences B-1 APPENDIX B Brief Listing of Guidelines and Protocols for Highway Runoff Characterization and Management