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19 training program that has been implemented by Smithway great that the problem was how to locate, select, and evalu- Motor Xpress (Ft. Dodge, IA) to teach load securement pro- ate the most appropriate ones for the company (Uzgiris et al., cedures has reduced training costs from $1,000 per driver to 1991). While audiovisual aids are offered as a countermea- $150 per driver. It has been associated with a reduction of sure for preventable crashes and to improve fleet safety, it is claims in that area of 87%. Most of the cost saving results important to determine what mix of audiovisual aids, posters, from a reduction in the time it takes drivers to learn the manuals, pamphlets, and other literature is most effective in material when presented using computers compared with improving a company's training program. Sources of driver classroom lecture and on-the-job training. Drivers learn at training aids mentioned by the FHWA include national and their own pace and can take laptops with them on the road and state truck and bus associations, safety organizations, insur- study the coursework in their down-time. Also, the statistics ance companies, company in-house productions, and private- that computer-based programs keep (topics trained, length of sector providers and consultants. time to train, and areas of difficulty) can pinpoint areas where Historical examples include a videotape series to stan- additional help is needed. Kahaner (2001) further states that dardize training for drivers who haul bulk liquid and gaseous computer-based training is more attractive to younger drivers products, the majority of which are hazardous (Snyder, 1983). who were brought up playing computer games and are used to Drivers progress from classroom instruction that includes the faster pace of TV and the Internet; these individuals would personal and videotape training, to hands-on training, and be bored with training that is limited to classroom lecture. then back into the classroom several times before being cer- Ryder (2000) describes a computer-program developed tified for over-the-road work. Another example is a video by Instructional Technologies, Inc., that delivers 32 1-hour developed by the American Trucking Associations and FLI lessons on trucking fundamentals based on the PTDI cur- Learning Systems; it was designed to improve drivers' atti- riculum. This vendor provides schools and fleets with com- tudes and skills and help them realize how their behavior on puters at no cost and delivers the lessons via a high-speed the road shapes the public's perception of the trucking agency Internet connection, so that schools and fleets pay only for what (Dandrea, 1986). As part of a 4-hour program, the multime- they use. The lessons are presented using video, high-quality dia components include a 12-minute film addressing attitude graphics, and animation to explain concepts and demonstrate and image and a 6-part audio-narrated slide series designed driving practices. Students log onto the program with a code, to improve driver techniques for handling high-frequency and must answer questions about the instructional material crash situations. roughly every 3 minutes, which ensures that they are paying More recent experience with such tools includes the use attention. A benefit of this program is that it standardizes train- by in-house instructors at PST Vans (Salt Lake City, UT) ing and provides documentation that a student has received of the product noted at the end of Chapter 2, "The Alert training. Driver: A Trucker's Guide to Sleep, Fatigue, and Rest in Thompson (1996) describes a CD-ROM training program Our 24-Hour Society," during orientation for new drivers implemented by Frito Lay to train drivers about DOT regula- and at safety meetings for their experienced drivers. This tions, focusing on alcohol and drug requirements. CD-ROMS company employs 1,500 drivers who are on the road for and PCs have been placed in 40 company locations through- 2 to 3 weeks at a time. They train their new drivers in top- ics relating to how to deal with fatigue, how to eat and sleep out the United States. The program takes 2 hours to complete, properly, and how to maintain positive relationships while and drivers are given 90 days to finish the training. The Safety away from home for long periods of time. Discussions Director believes that the delivery of training using the CD- include sleep and rest needs, diet, stress, lifestyle, and how ROM is more entertaining than reading text or watching plain these relate to driving, and leads nicely to discussions about voice-over videos, and the methodology allows the training to DOT regulations and hours of service rules. be delivered in a flexible manner, which eliminates schedul- Another program employed by PST Vans for all new hires ing difficulties common with conventional classroom training. (entry-level as well as experienced drivers) is a video test A computer tracks driver status in training, time spent in train- developed to measure a driver's traffic-related knowledge ing, and the driver's scores, producing proof of compliance and skill level. This can be used by the company for decisions with training for the DOT. Additional programs on defensive relating to driver training needs and assignments. Drivers driving, proper use of the onboard computer, and pretrip and watch a 60-minute video, using paper answer sheets to indi- posttrip inspections are planned using similar computer-based cate whether they agree or disagree with actions portrayed in training technology. different traffic scenes, making split-second decisions as they would in real-life driving. Different parts of the video measure VIDEOTAPES AND SLIDE PRESENTATIONS driving and traffic knowledge (e.g., traffic laws, road rules, TO SUPPLEMENT CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION driver readiness, driving in traffic, and vehicle readiness); traffic perception skills (e.g., searching the driving environ- Videotape presentations are available today that address ment, identifying and classifying hazards, predicting what virtually any subject a company wishes a driver to know con- other drivers will do, and deciding which maneuver is most cerning product delivery and safety. More than a decade ago, appropriate given the situation); traffic risk recognition and the FHWA stated that the number of training aids was so acceptance (e.g., yielding to other roadway users, vehicle