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20 positioning, vehicle speed control, passing other roadway age, third-party claims, and lawsuits (8%), and crashes per users, and environmental risks); and driving procedure skills million miles of vehicle travel in primarily urban driving (e.g., observing, communicating, speed adjustment, vehicle areas (23.5%). The cycle under which these companies and positioning, and time and space judgment). Results catego- agencies require their drivers to undergo defensive driving rize a driver's skill level as low, medium, average, highly refresher training averages 2 to 3 years. skilled, and expert, and estimate the statistical probability that driver training will improve driving performance. They also influence where the company places their newly hired drivers HANDS-ON, ON-THE-ROAD in training. Driving school graduates who score high on the Beginning drivers who complete formal training--includ- video test and also score high on PST's on-road test may be placed in the accelerated fleet training program, which pays ing the PTDI curriculum standard--cannot be considered drivers 2 cents more per mile and puts them on a fast track for fully trained drivers without additional road experience and a first-seat driver position. The company reports a reduction vocational-type training (such as loading tankers, chaining on in crash frequency since program implementation for all loads, etc.), under the guidance and supervision of an experi- crash types, including in-traffic and single-vehicle crashes. In enced, professional driver. As noted earlier, PTDI not only addition, scores improved for entry-level drivers on post- calls for each student to receive a minimum of 44 hours of training testing (after 90 days). Within one 6-month period, actual behind-the-wheel time to complete the basic, or core, PST reported a reduction in incidents from 225 to 125, where curriculum, but also stresses the need for an externship of 140 incidents are defined as anything requiring an incident report, to 240 hours of additional (on-duty) instruction to provide the from a DOT-reportable crash to a worker compensation acci- training and experience needed for an entry-level driver to dent (Cleaves, 1997). progress from a second-seat to a solo driver (Professional A search of the Internet identified a number of instructional Truck Driving Institute, 1999). The procedures and require- products, including instructors' kits and driver workbooks ments for finishing training as implemented by a cross-section for self-paced courses, as well as a self-paced defensive of schools and carriers are discussed below. driving course. The latter course concentrates on critical Wiggins (1990) describes the requirements for trainers at commercial driver's license and National Safety Council Contract Freighters, Inc. (CFI) and the training that the com- (NSC) defensive driving principles, including pretrip inspec- pany provides to newly hired drivers. CFI's trainers are com- tion, cushion of safety (following distance, stopping distances, pany drivers who undergo a 36-hour in-house course that blind spots, and tailgaters) and effective scanning procedures includes methods of motivation, constructive criticism, and applied to city, highway, and rural driving situations. It also mental aspects of the job (teaching drivers why they should zeroes in on safe backing procedures, night driving, impaired do something in addition to what they should do). Prospec- drivers, adverse weather conditions, triangle placement, tive trainers observe each others' driving performance and and the importance of adequate sleep, exercise, and proper provide constructive criticism before they begin training new nutrition. hires. Once a trainer begins working with new hires, he or she The NSC's Defensive Driving Courses (DDCs) are in many undergoes a management review every 6 months. Before they ways the pre-eminent example of how video is used to sup- go on the road, new drivers undergo a week-long orientation plement classroom instruction. Some companies use DDC-4 which includes meeting department managers, attending pre- (4 hours), DDC-6 (6 hours), or DDC-8 (8 hours) as a foun- sentations on equipment maintenance and safety, and federally dation for their fleet programs for their new recruits and as a mandated physical and road testing. Then, a trainer-finisher refresher, while others use its 8-hour professional truck driver travels 14,000 miles with the new driver, to supervise regular course (DDC-PTD). Some companies also require employ- demands of the driving task, provide practice in backing, and ees who have been involved in a preventable crash to com- provide training in skills such as brake adjustment. The finisher plete a DDC before they are permitted to return to the road. and driver may act as a sleeper team only after 7,000 miles Companies commonly use the DDCs as the core of their of training have been completed, and only if there have been classroom training and add a film on a particular topic or no preventable crashes. After the new hire completes the use in-vehicle training to reinforce the concepts taught in the 14,000 miles, the driver undergoes a road analysis test includ- classroom. Training effectiveness statistics provided by Kiell ing a written questionnaire to determine how much was learned (1989) indicate safety improvements as a result of such train- and to rate how well the finisher performed in providing train- ing for a wide range of users. ChemLawn reported a 50% ing. After the finishing training, the new driver is placed with reduction in costs from crashes over a 4-year period (1985 to another driver with similar experience for 25,000 miles as a 1989); it also reported its insurance costs decreased, whereas sleeper team. If a crash occurs, an additional 10,000 crash-free the rates of most other companies increased over the same miles must be completed. time period. The Indiana Department of Highways reported a The drop out rate of the finishing program at CFI is 32%, 40% reduction in crashes over a 5-year period (1984 to 1989), most of which occurs during the finishing training. According while Houston Lighting and Power reported reductions in to the company's director of training, once a new driver has costs associated with vehicle damage (32%), property dam- completed the finishing program and sleeper team driving,

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21 there is an 85% likelihood that the driver will stay with the gram, including refresher training using the NSC's DDC, company. Periodic retraining is also important to correct bad reduced the number of collisions about 33% between the habits, reinforce driver safety, and reduce crashes. Refresher years 1988 and 1993. training can be accomplished by a range of programs: short While the success of the BFI training program can be courses covering topics most important to the company's oper- attributed in part to the use of vehicle- and location-specific ation, such as braking and brake adjustments, speed and space training and reliance on experienced drivers, the company management, etc.; group simulator training; and individual asserts that its single most effective motivating and training training in a full motion cab simulator. tool is its annual truck and equipment rodeo. In this event, the Certification of training instructors is paramount for PST top drivers, operators, and mechanics (and their families) Vans, which employs a proprietary, hands-on, defensive- from company operations all over the world are treated to an driving system for its finishing training (Cleaves, 1997). The all-expenses-paid trip to compete and demonstrate their skills. PST instructors present the course to drivers in groups of four. More broadly, Horn and Tardif (1999) testify to the use of Drivers first spend classroom time learning about crash statis- motivational and incentive/recognition programs, beyond tics and common factors that cause collisions. The training is the use of company training programs, in offering significant organized around the concepts of total awareness, emphasiz- potential for safety improvement and driver retention. Horn ing perceptive anticipation, accurate forecasting, early detec- and Tardif cite research Tardif conducted in Canada, finding tion, and deliberate reaction. Drivers also learn the importance that over 70% of the 40 trucking fleets interviewed had a safety of attitude and emotions and how they affect driving. Practical incentive or recognition program in place. The effectiveness of instruction on how to avoid low-speed collisions when back- these programs in reducing crashes is "remarkably high" and ing and parking and how to avoid rear-end and intersection the benefitcost ratios are usually greater than 2 to 1. Accord- collisions is not overlooked. Drivers then go on the road with ing to Horn and Tardif (1999), results of validation research the instructor for 3 to 4 hours, so the instructor can point out indicate that such programs also improve driver retention. and correct any poor driving habits and poor driving deci- Much of the industry input addressing the question of what sions in traffic. The training instructors must be recertified constitutes adequate training and the specific nature and extent every 2 years in refresher training provided by the vendor of of requirements to finish training was gleaned from responses the training course. by schools and trucking companies to FMCSA's ANPRM in Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI) developed its own train- 1993. The relevant material is available on the Internet through ing program for entry-level drivers because of the unique the U.S. DOT's Document Management System.5 Information characteristics of its garbage trucks, which are 10-wheel from these responses is summarized below. In some cases, the vehicles that do not bend in the middle (straight trucks). The FMCSA information about training methods employed has requirements for driving these trucks are different from the been supplemented with more detailed or updated material requirements of driving tractor trailers and van-rig type trucks. from an organization's web site. The training had to suit the requirements of drivers who drive The Wisconsin Decision Driving Center at Fox Valley in low traffic, in residential areas, in low light, and with con- Technical College, a PTDI-certified school, offers a 1-day stant mounting and dismounting by crew members to remove workshop to give drivers hands-on experience in learning trash. In addition, company employees must back their trucks how to avoid crashes. An off-street driving range simulates at least 100 times a day, often for relatively long distances. emergency situations that test a driver's limitations and a The program includes training videos showing company vehi- vehicle's capabilities. Drivers learn controlled braking tech- cles in situations that BFI drivers typically encounter and niques, off-road recovery techniques, evasive maneuvers, booklets that prepare drivers for the CDL written test, pretrip how to handle dry and slippery curves, skid control, jackknife inspection, road test, and special endorsement exams. The recovery, the antilock brake system, reaction time and vehi- training was considered effective, based on in the fact that the cle braking distance, and vehicle dynamics and control. The first 300 drivers who attempted the CDL had a first-time pass center features computer-controlled evasive devices and a rate of 97%, compared with the first-time pass rate of 50% 200 ft 500 ft skid pad. The curriculum offered by this facil- experienced by other companies who did not train their driv- ity provides 1,500 miles of behind-the-wheel training experi- ers for the CDL. ence by the time a student graduates from the 12- to 15-week BFI's CDL program became a standard part of the com- program. Training is provided on flat beds, twin trailers, and pany's operating procedures. It only hires drivers who have tanker trucks up to 48 feet long and 102 inches wide. A coop- passed the CDL, and these new hires must undergo classroom erative unit of instruction between the college and Wisconsin training, followed by hands-on training with the specific trucking companies is offered to students who graduate from vehicle they will operate. They then ride as a passenger in the the program, allowing over-the-road driving experience with vehicle to learn from an experienced driver or supervisor. a veteran driver. After that phase, the new hire may go on-the-road under supervision by an experienced driver. Some new hires com- 5See the U.S. DOT's Document Management System at; search plete the program in 2 weeks, while others require 6 weeks to under Old Docket No. MC-93-12 to retrieve Document Numbers FMCSA-1997-2199-1 become proficient. BFI estimates that its driver-training pro- to FMCSA-1997-2199-215.

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22 Reiterating the need for finishing training for entry-level from a PTDI-certified school, to undergo over-the-road train- drivers, the Becker Driver Training Facility has expressed ing under the supervision of an experienced trainer/finisher the view that, "after a few hours of instruction, most students driver until they reach a suitable level of experience to oper- can pass the (CDL) driving test in a controlled circumstance. ate alone. Similarly, EPES Carriers, of Greensboro, North Unless minimum programs with hands-on training under the Carolina, provides entry-level drivers, who have graduated direct guidance of a veteran 10-year licensed instructor are from an approved truck driver training school with PTDI or established, unskilled heavy duty operators will continue to similar standards, with finishing training through a driving operate on the highways." This Minnesota facility offers a school (the Carolina Training Center). This includes DDC- 6-month, 1,200-hour interstate course that is 75% hands-on PTD (the 8-hour training for professional drivers developed training under the guidance of a veteran driver instructor. In by the NSC) and supplemental training in handling hazardous the over-the-road training, there is a 1-to-1 studentteacher materials. ratio. The course includes 338 classroom hours, 366 hours in At J. B. Hunt, entry-level drivers who have satisfactorily the yard and on the range, 100 hours of observation and road completed a driver training program that meets or exceeds driving that includes preparation for the CDL, and 400 hours PTDI standards and have obtained their CDL must complete of observation, commercial type driving, and hauling of a "preimprovement" interview, road test, and company ori- cargo; these last 400 hours of training involve actual driving entation. These drivers are then assigned to a J. B. Hunt Cer- and hauling of interstate freight. In addition to basic truck- tified Trainer for a supervised Advanced Driver Training driving techniques, students learn the following skills: map Program. Upon completion of the Advanced Driver Training reading and trip planning, hours of service, preparation of the Program, drivers are evaluated with written tests and exams daily log, vehicle safety inspections; understanding the bill of and given an additional Road Skill Evaluation before being lading instructions; building personal stamina, proper diet, upgraded to a lead (first-seat) driver. and how to help the body adjust to different wake/sleep, work Federal Express requires entry-level CMV drivers to com- hour patterns; and mechanical aptitude. plete a 3-week classroom training program that includes the Another school, C1 Professional Training Center in Indiana, subjects listed in the PTDI Model Curriculum. Following indicated in its response to the FMCSA ANPRM that the cru- classroom training, prospective drivers are required to com- cial factor in determining the effectiveness of a training pro- plete 1-week of on-the-job training with an experienced driver gram is the amount of time the student spends in and around trainer. Entry-level drivers must successfully complete both the cab of a truck. This school spends over 75% of the train- phases of Federal Express' training program before operating ing time in and around the cab of the truck, has a student- a CMV on public highways. instructor and student-truck ratio of 2:1, and uses an instructor Drivers employed by the Wisconsin-based Schneider force that averages over 20 years of truck driving experience. National trucking organization who have not yet logged The Director of Training at this school, in concert with other 30,000 miles are divided into two categories. The first group commenters to this ANPRM, stated that it is not how many consists of drivers who have attended a driving school and hours of training that determines whether a student is ade- have a CDL. They are trained for 1 week (3 days classroom quately trained but the skill level that the student demonstrates. and 4 days over the road). Upon passing the company road One comment with multiple signatures stated that truck test, they spend a minimum of 2 weeks with a training engi- driving schools do not have students load, unload, and prop- neer. The training engineer does not sleep while the student erly secure a load. Drivers are learning how to properly load drives and limits his or her own driving for demonstration their trailers by trial and error, and error may cause an accident. purposes to less than 25% of the miles driven during training. One company, Baraboo Sysco, said training for entry-level The second group of drivers consists of drivers with no expe- drivers consisted of a 4-week program, including 32 hours of rience or CDL. They attend a basic course for a minimum of night driving, 145 hours of day driving, and 32 hours of yard 2 weeks and must pass both CDL tests and the company road driving (backing and cornering maneuvers). This is followed test before moving on to the training engineer stage. Trainees up by supervisor "ride-withs" twice each month. Similarly, are later teamed with another driver for the next 4 to 6 weeks. Virginia Power comments indicate the use of on-the-job Schneider has an on-going program of driver training to ensure entry-level driver training procedures. Entry-level drivers are up-to-date skills. Annual recertification in hazardous materials shown films about safe driving and a film on pre- and post- and brake adjustment is required. Training is also offered in log- trip inspections specific to company utility service vehicles. ging, backing, defensive driving, slow maneuvering (e.g., cor- They then obtain their CDL learner's permit and are assigned ners, etc.), injury prevention, trip planning, and fuel-efficient to a crew with an experienced utility service vehicle operator driving. Schneider also utilizes regular skid-pad training. Driv- who trains the entry-level driver to operate the specialized ers who handle special freight are required to complete extra company utility service vehicles. The on-the-job training training. For example, those in specialized carriers (flatbed trail- period lasts from 3 to 6 months. ers) complete 7 days of classroom instruction and hands-on Another company, John Christner Trucking, Inc. (Sapulpa, training. Those in bulk carriers (tankers) complete 6 days of OK), requires entry-level drivers, who must have graduated classroom and hands-on instruction.

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23 A final set of examples illustrating requirements for finishing with a driver-trainer for a period of 8 to 10 weeks before training on entry-level drivers includes the following: being assigned their own truck. Trainees with more than 3 months but less than 6 months of experience must com- Robert Hansen Trucking, Inc. (Delevan, WI): 10,000 to plete the apprentice program of 6 weeks with the driver- 30,000 miles of hands-on training with a company driver trainer. Trainees with more than 6 months but less than trainer-finisher are required after the trainee has completed 12 months of driving experience must complete 3 weeks a 12-week, full-time truck driving program (classroom, with the driver-trainer. lab, range, and on-street) covering the PTDI curriculum. CRST (Cedar Rapids, IA): Its new drivers must spend ROCOR International (Oklahoma City, OK): After a a minimum of 50,000 miles on the road with a driver- candidate completes a PTDI-certified driving school pro- trainer after graduating from one of seven PTDI- gram, trainees without any prior experience are placed certified training schools.