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24 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY INPUTS ON THE VALUE OF ALTERNATIVE TRAINING METHODS The other avenue in this project through which industry Five schools (two community colleges, one state university, input was obtained was the survey mailed to schools, truck and and two career/technology centers); three truck companies motorcoach companies, and associations. This survey sought (one regional LTL freight carrier, one over-the-road flatbed opinions regarding the effectiveness of various methodologies company, and one private fleet retail carrier), and one motor- in completing the training of entry-level CMV drivers to allow coach company provided responses to the survey. The over- them to perform safely under a full range of operating condi- the-road flatbed company reported providing training to new tions. An assumption stated in the survey introduction was hires. This training is provided by a certified trainer without that the PTDI/FHWA model curriculum establishes a mini- cost to the new hire during a 6-week period, after which time, mum standard for the knowledge component of CMV driver the driver is qualified to drive solo. Training is provided in training. Prospective survey respondents therefore were asked conventional tractors and flatbed trailers using staged training to focus on the finishing aspects of entry-level driver training loads. This company trains approximately 600 new hires each and to help identify the best methods of providing beginning year, of which approximately 460 graduate. The community drivers with supplemental instruction focused on key safety colleges, state university, and technology/career center schools problems, such as speed and space management, hazardous varied in their responses to the average time to qualify as a operating conditions, fitness-to-drive, and lifestyle issues. solo driver in their programs. The range of responses was from Twelve questions were posed, regarding methods to pro- 4 weeks to 11 weeks, with one school specifying 400 hours. vide training in the following topic areas: (1) hands-on train- Before considering the inputs provided by those who took ing in speed and space management; (2) hands-on training in the time to complete survey responses, it is instructive to note driving in hazardous weather conditions; (3) hands-on train- the comments of those who did not. A common response pro- ing in rollover prevention; (4) hands-on training in nighttime vided during the follow-up telephone requests to encourage operations; (5) hands-on training in tight maneuvering, such survey completion was that a particular carrier does not hire as backing, docking, and turning; (6) hands-on training in entry-level drivers nor does it provide entry-level training. emergency maneuvering, such as skid control and recovery; Such companies simply stated a requirement that new hires (7) hands-on training in vehicle inspection and maintenance; have 2 to 3 years of verifiable experience--in one case, a (8) hands-on training in passenger safety and security (for minimum of 100,000 verifiable hours--and a clean record. buses) or coupling/uncoupling and cargo loading/unloading/ Information about training methods provided by the survey securement (for trucks); (9) maintenance of health and well- respondents is presented below for each of the 12 curriculum ness; (10) fitness for duty; (11) management of work sched- topics listed above. Because of the small sample size, care ule and family time; and (12) management of finances. Each must be taken when generalizing about the results of the effec- of these 12 questions had 2 parts. The first part asked respon- tiveness ratings provided for the various methodologies. dents to describe the specific techniques they have used (or are familiar with) to provide training to beginning drivers and SPEED AND SPACE MANAGEMENT what methods work the best, in their opinion, and why. The second part of each question asked respondents to provide rat- The most common technique used to provide hands-on ings from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest) for five candidate training training in speed and space management is classroom instruc- methods, to express their opinion about the effectiveness of tion reinforced by on-the-road training. Classroom instruction each method in meeting the training goals for the topic area in includes textbooks, workbooks (e.g., Thomson Delmar Learn- question. The candidate methods rated for each of the 12 topic ing's Trucking: Tractor Trailer Driver Handbook/Workbook areas were (1) e-learning via computer in a remote location; and Great West Casualty Company's Ethics and Techniques for (2) computer-aided instruction in the classroom; (3) noninter- the Professional Driver), videotapes, and the National Safety active simulation in a cab mock-up; (4) high-fidelity interac- Council DDC-PTD. The Tractor Trailer Driver Handbook/ tive driving simulators; and (5) conventional training aids, Workbook (used by one of the technical centers) was devel- such as textbooks, videotapes, slides, and models. See Appen- oped by the PTDI and Thomson Delmar Learning; it is based dix A to review the actual survey form. on the standards established by the FHWA in its Model Cur-