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25 riculum and the PTDI certification program. The Great West able; drivers need to feel first-hand what loss of control is material is a 4-hour training module delivered by one of the like. He indicated that a simulator is second best to a skid pad transport companies that responded to the survey. and that it must be accompanied by classroom training in the- Two formulas were offered by respondents as techniques ory and technique. A respondent from a motorcoach company used to train speed and space management: one school indicated that on-the-road training and experience has proven teaches students to allow 1 second for each 10 feet of their most effective for their company; their drivers generally expe- vehicle length under 40 mph and to add 1 second for speeds rience mild snow storms and showers before severe storms hit. over 40 mph; and one carrier indicated that it teaches new The regional LTL freight carrier respondent indicated that all hires to allow 6 to 7 seconds of following distance, by count- new hires for class B must have 1 year of verifiable experience; ing (1001, 1002, 1003, etc) after the vehicle ahead passes a and class A hires must have 2 years of verifiable experience. fixed object. One school indicated that it uses commentary Employees have an opportunity for advancement programs; driving to ensure that the student is seeing what is important. they begin in a class B and are given in-cab instruction during Another school indicated that the daily evaluation forms used the winter safety campaign. in its on-the-road training have a place to indicate following dis- In terms of effectiveness ratings for the various teaching tance, speed control, passing, lanekeeping, lane changes, and methodologies for training beginning drivers to drive in proper mirror use, which are all speed related. One carrier stated hazardous weather conditions, conventional methods were that it uses a proprietary training course, the Smith System. weighted the highest (mean = 7.8 out of 10), followed by high- The highest effectiveness ratings were provided for con- fidelity simulation (mean = 5.5). As in training for speed and ventional teaching methods (mean = 8.4 out of 10). This may space management, high-fidelity simulation received high be the result of conventional methodologies being the only ratings (7 to 9) by four respondents, even though only one of methods available to the majority of the respondents. Use the nine respondents had high-fidelity simulation training of e-learning, computer-aided instruction, and noninteractive available. E-learning, computer-assisted instruction, and non- simulation received ratings averaging between 3.2 and 4.0. interactive simulation received effectiveness ratings averaging Although eight of the nine respondents reported that they have 3.5 to 4.0. no simulator, use of a high-fidelity simulator received high effectiveness ratings (7 to 10) for training speed and space management by four respondents. The mean rating for high- ROLLOVER PREVENTION fidelity simulators was 5.8, which was second to conven- tional methods. Only one respondent (a community college) Techniques used to train beginning drivers in rollover pre- reported that it had a simulator. One respondent representing vention include classroom training, supplemented by video. a career center stated that although his school does not have a One school teaches the "No Lean" policy: if you never go fast simulator, he has looked into buying a fully interactive unit, enough to cause your cab or yourself to lean, you have less after talking with other instructors who have used them. chance to roll over. Another school respondent indicated that in the classroom, they talk about center of gravity, shifting and surging cargo, and speed on curves, and they practice this DRIVING IN HAZARDOUS daily on the road. One school utilizes a high-fidelity simu- WEATHER CONDITIONS lator to train rollover prevention. A truck carrier with no Specific techniques in use by survey respondents to pro- simulator indicated that a simulator would be a great tool, vide hands-on-training to beginners for driving in hazardous but hands-on with various loads on a test track works best to conditions include classroom training using lectures and let the driver get a feel for the shifting of weight and truck films, followed up with on-road training (5 respondents), and response. This type of hands-on training is risky with an in- simulation (1 respondent). Four respondents mentioned that experienced driver, so it is imperative that the instructor be a skid pad is an effective technique, but skid pads are not competent. This company reinforces the fact that warning sign always available because of cost. One respondent represent- advisory speed limits are designed for cars and that truck ing a school indicated that he wished the school had a skid drivers must keep speeds well below postings in curves and pad for this type of training, but it does not. This respondent on ramps. The respondent from a motorcoach company stated stated that the school did not stop training for rain, but if the that it trains its drivers that it is better to take a crash head on roads are slick with snow or ice, training is discontinued for rather than move to the shoulder or median and risk a rollover. safety reasons. Another school respondent indicated that It uses oral instruction to train rollover prevention. although a skid pad works well to instill a healthy respect for Effectiveness ratings for methods of training rollover pre- ice and snow, the instructors at his school believe that it actu- vention followed the same pattern as for speed and space man- ally does more to scare new drivers than to train them. He agement and hazardous weather; conventional techniques indicated that only driving in poor conditions is effective for received the highest mean rating (7.0 out of 10), followed by training safety under poor conditions and that training must high-fidelity simulation (5.0). Again, e-learning, computer- be provided by a competent instructor. A retail carrier indi- assisted instruction, and noninteractive simulation were rated cated that the skid pad works best, but it is not always avail- between 3.3 and 3.7, on average.