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26 NIGHTTIME OPERATIONS computer-assisted instruction, and noninteractive simulation received average ratings of 3.2 to 3.5. Techniques used to train beginning drivers in safe nighttime operations include on-road nighttime drives (reported by all EMERGENCY MANEUVERING respondents), as well as use of a test track with unknown haz- ards (one carrier) to help demonstrate reaction time and sight Specific techniques used to provide training in the per- distance issues. One school respondent indicated that night formance of emergency maneuvers (e.g., skid control and operations are conducted near the end of the program after recovery) to beginning drivers include a skid pad (by one the student has become competent at handling the truck. This school and one trucking company); a high-fidelity simulator school requires 7.5 hours of darkness driving under instructor (by one school); videos (a motorcoach company); and class- supervision. Another school respondent indicated that the room and training manuals (two schools and one trucking school takes its students out on both interstate and two-lane company). A school that uses a skid pad employs both bob- roads at night. Another school that provides some night train- tail and tractor-trailer combinations with the skid pad. A ing indicated that it teaches paying attention to offtracking on school that does not have a skid pad expressed a desire for turns, being able to see the back of the trailer, and increasing one for use in training emergency maneuvers. This school following distance. One trucking company stated that a heavy must rely on classroom instruction. Another school respon- emphasis is placed on proper rest, circadian rhythms, and dent indicated that its students try not to perform emergency fatigue management to help encourage nighttime safety. maneuvers as the school is not set up to teach them. The retail Effectiveness ratings were highest for conventional meth- trucking company that uses a skid pad indicated that hands-on ods (mean = 6.9 out of 10), followed by high-fidelity simula- training is best to develop skillful execution. This respondent tion (mean = 5.0). As for the previous topics, high-fidelity also noted that basic techniques can be taught in the classroom, simulation, although used by only one respondent, received but they are ineffective alone. high effectiveness ratings (between 7 and 9) by four respon- Effectiveness ratings were highest for conventional methods dents. E-learning, computer-assisted instruction, and nonin- (mean = 7.6 out of 10), followed by high-fidelity simulation teractive simulation were rated 3.5 to 3.7, on average. (mean = 5.0). Again, four respondents (three schools and one trucking company) provided high ratings for high-fidelity simulation (7 through 9), even though only one school actu- TIGHT MANEUVERING ally utilizes this technology for training. The use of e-learning, computer-assisted instruction, and noninteractive simulation Specific techniques reported in use for training beginners were rated between 3.1 and 3.8 on average. in tight maneuvering of the vehicle include range and on-road practice. One school and one trucking company mentioned VEHICLE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE GOAL (Get Out And Look) training in nontraffic areas or low-volume areas, such as terminals and customer facilities. Specific techniques used to train beginners in vehicle inspec- One career center stated that its students perform a lot of tight tion and maintenance include demonstration and hands-on turns on-road daily, and they practice straight back, alley practice, which was indicated by all respondents, plus the use dock, and parallel park from both sides each time they have of videos (by a motorcoach company), textbooks, and the CDL on-road training. A state college respondent indicated that it manual. One school stated the following, "We demonstrate a uses a set of four backing exercises set up with maximum pretrip inspection before we even study it in the classroom. boundaries, points being deducted for encroachments and Then the students do a pretrip every day on the range for a pull-ups. Students must first test out of each exercise four week; and then we do another demonstration. They practice times and then test out on all four together, scoring 80% in a pretrip every day for the rest of the course. Out of a possi- each exercise. A community college reported that it uses a ble 105 points, most all of our students score above 100." The variety of scenarios on the range and also has permission state school respondent indicated that its classroom training from several local companies to back into their docks when includes 40 hours of preventive maintenance training that cov- available. One trucking company indicated that it uses a test ers all aspects of vehicle systems. The students are constantly area with barrels to practice, as this method is flexible and coached on PTDI procedures. Another school indicated that it does not cause damage. This company stated that hands-on establishes a routine to use during inspections, based on the training is best, but simulator training would be valuable as 7-step routine recommended by the state manuals. A truck- well. The motorcoach respondent indicated that videos, oral ing company indicated that it makes the driver perform a pre- training, a cone course, and on-road training are their best trip inspection during orientation, and then it takes the driver practices. through the shop and has the maintenance department discuss Effectiveness ratings were again highest for conventional maintenance issues. Another company indicated that it uses methods (mean = 6.6 out of 10), followed by high-fidelity North American inspection criteria and process. They set simulation (mean = 4.9). High-fidelity simulation received defects on a unit and then allow the student to inspect the unit. high ratings (7 through 9) from four respondents. E-learning, The company reviews any missed defects with the student.