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27 Effectiveness ratings for conventional methods of delivery of college reported that health and wellness maintenance is only training were highest (mean = 6.8 out of 10). Computer-assisted one small segment of one 4-hour classroom period. instruction received the next highest rating (average = 3.8), Effectiveness ratings were highest for conventional teach- followed by e-learning (mean = 3.0). Not surprisingly, high- ing methods (mean = 7.8 out of 10), followed by e-learning fidelity simulation was rated low in effectiveness for training and computer-assisted instruction (both averaged 4.3) and the drivers in vehicle inspection and maintenance (mean = 2.4). two simulation techniques (both averaged 1.4). Noninteractive simulation was also rated low in effectiveness for this application (mean = 2.4). FITNESS FOR DUTY BUS PASSENGER SAFETY, TRUCK COUPLING Specific techniques used to provide fitness-for-duty training AND CARGO TRAINING to beginning drivers include classroom lecture, workbooks, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) Pocket- Specific techniques used by schools and carriers to pro- book, videos, and testing and logging exercises. One school vide training to beginning drivers in passenger safety and respondent reported that students fill out a log book every day security (for buses) or coupling/uncoupling and cargo loading/ in class, so that once class is completed, they know how to unloading/securement (for trucks) include hands-on practice use the log books and what the laws are. Another school and classroom lecture. One school respondent stated that respondent indicated that students spend many hours work- cargo securement training is minimal. The school maintains ing on topics such as hours of service, accident procedures, four loaded trailers for road training, one of which is loaded trip planning, customer relations, and employee/employer with concrete blocks. Some reference is made to proper relations. In contrast, another school respondent reported securement, but there is no hands-on training in this area. that fitness-for-duty training is only one small segment of a Another school indicated that its students practice coupling 4-hour classroom lecture period. A transport company respon- and uncoupling after studying it in the textbook. They then dent indicated that it had developed its own Hours-of-Service do an evaluation for a score in class. The school teaches Training Module, which runs 2.5 hours. This respondent indi- loading/unloading and securement mainly in class, but it has cated that the module is proving to be very effective. Another a few flatbed loads that require securing. Another school trucking company respondent indicated it gives the students a indicated that it has an established routine that students fol- trip scenario, including distances and speed limits, and has the low when coupling and uncoupling. The safety director of a students prepare a log. Only one respondent, a motorcoach local trucking company instructs the class in the importance company, reported using videos. of securement/loading/unloading. In another school, theory Effectiveness ratings were highest for conventional meth- is taught in the classroom, and then students learn hands-on ods (mean = 8.4 out of 10), followed by computer-assisted coupling and uncoupling with the instructor. Students also learning (mean = 4.3) and e-learning (mean = 3.3). The two chain down a load of concrete slab on a flatbed trailer. The simulation techniques were rated low in effectiveness for trucking companies indicated that hands-on training is the teaching fitness for duty (each averaged 1.6). best method. Coupling/uncoupling is not taught in orientation Specific techniques used to provide training to beginners by one company; instead it is covered by the trainer on the about management of work schedules and family time include road. Cargo securement is covered by this company in about classroom discussion (all respondents) and the video, "The 30 minutes using company-specific diagrams, slides, and dig- Alert Driver: A Trucker's Guide to Sleep, Fatigue, and Rest in ital photographs. The motorcoach company indicated that Our 24-Hour Society" (by one trucking company). The com- passenger safety is taught by guidelines, videos, and lecture. pany that employs the "Alert Driver" video also focuses on Effectiveness ratings were highest for conventional teach- real-life scenarios concerning drivers who failed to manage ing methods (mean = 7.7 out of 10), followed by e-learning and rest. This company focuses on the family's role in making sure computer-assisted learning (mean = 3.5) and noninteractive the driver is prepared and reports that if the driver/student does simulation and high-fidelity simulation (means = 2.6 and 2.4, not feel the need to be prepared, he or she will fail. Interestingly, respectively). one of the industry contacts reported that in his experience with hiring and training entry-level drivers, approximately 90% quit after the first 6 months on the job because they could not han- WELLNESS dle or did not like the amount of time they had to spend away from home. A respondent from a community college rein- Specific techniques reported by respondents for training forced this issue, stating, "It seems that no matter how much beginning drivers to enable them to maintain their health and you tell someone, they don't understand it until they experi- wellness are limited to classroom lecture, with the exception ence it." Two school respondents indicated that it would be of one trucking company respondent who indicated that the helpful to have videotapes or some kind of written material company demonstrates stretching exercises to prepare mus- to teach this aspect of truck driver training. One school (a cles for work. One school also distributes a monthly "Well- state university) indicated that it does not teach management ness Tips" brochure to employees. One instructor at a state of work schedules and family time as part of the curriculum;