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Summary of Recommended Standardized Procedures and Guidelines 13 travel (A4), fuel type, and employment status. Most of the other questions either do not require categories or the categories are self evident and already standardized (e.g., gender [P1]). More details concerning this issue are to be found in Section 4.2 of the Technical Appendix. To devise recommended standardized categories, definitions of seven international statistical agencies for the specific variables were looked at and compared with the seven data sets exam- ined as well as two other survey definitions. The results are shown in Table 3. Where less detail is desired, the primary categories are recommended to be used and these should suffice in the majority of surveys; where more detail is required, the secondary categories should be used. It is also possible to selectively add secondary categories--for example, housing tenure might be used with Categories 1, 2, 31, and 32, if the additional level of detail were desired only for Category 3. Similar mixing of category levels could be used with any of the variables in Table 3--for exam- ple, splitting rail (A4-71) into different submodes in an area such as New York may be desirable. Standardization of the activities to be included in designs that provide an activity list would also be useful and has been requested by some professionals involved in transportation surveys. The grouping of activities into common trip purposerelated categories would also be a useful element of this aspect of standardization. This is addressed in Section 2.5.4. 2.1.3 I-5: Standard Question Wordings To permit comparisons across surveys conducted in different locations at different times, it is essential that certain key questions be asked in the same manner. It is also important that the question wording or response definitions in a local survey be consistent with the wording (and definitions) used in a national survey or census, especially for variables that may serve as the basis for sampling, expansion, and checking for bias. Again, the focus of this issue is the mini- mum questions proposed in Section 2.1.1, but with the addition of some other questions that are frequently used in travel surveys, such as income. Only those questions where the wording is not necessarily self-evident and where variations that could affect the responses given are offered for standardization in Table 4. Details on this issue are provided in Section 4.3 of the Technical Appendix. 2.2 Design of Data Collection Procedures 2.2.1 D-1: Number and Type of Contacts This issue relates to the number of times and the manner in which households should be con- tacted to obtain complete household responses. In terms of recruitment, the question arises as to the number of times a household should be contacted to obtain a complete recruitment response, especially if initial contact results in the household requesting to be called back or sim- ply a non-contact (answering machine, busy, and modem/fax). Analysis conducted as part of this project and results from previous studies (which are described in Section 5.1 of the Techni- cal Appendix) indicate that there is no significant reduction in non-response bias if more than six attempts are made to call a household during either recruitment or retrieval. There are also no real changes in the conversion to complete interviews for households that requested to be called back or that were not contacted initially. The following standardized procedures are recommended to be followed: 1. A survey should include the use of reminders, which should be planned and programmed in the initial stages of the survey. The form of the reminders will depend on the methods used for the survey. However, some mix of telephone, mail, and e-mail reminders would nor- mally be appropriate.

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14 Standardized Procedures for Personal Travel Surveys Table 3. Recommended standardized categories. Variable Primary Category Code Secondary Category Code Type of Dwelling Single family house detached 1 Single family house detached 10 (H2) Single family house attached 2 Townhouse 21 Row house 22 Duplex 23 Triplex/fourplex 24 Apartment/mother-in-law suite 25 Apartment/condominium 3 Condominium 31 Rented apartment 32 Mobile home/trailer 4 Mobile home 41 Trailer/camper 42 Dorm/group quarters 5 Dormitory 51 Hostel 52 Nursing home 53 Military barracks 54 Hotel/motel 6 Hotel/motel 60 Other 9 Other 90 Relationship (H4) Self 1 Self 10 Spouse/partner 2 Husband/wife 21 De facto husband/de facto wife 22 Son/daughter 3 Natural son/daughter 31 Adopted son/daughter 32 Stepson/stepdaughter 33 Son-in-law/daughter-in-law 34 Father/mother 4 Natural father/mother 41 Adopted father/mother 42 Stepfather/stepmother 43 Father-in-law/mother-in-law 44 Brother/sister 5 Natural brother/sister 51 Adopted brother/sister 52 Stepbrother/stepsister 53 Brother-in-law/sister-in-law 54 Grandfather/grandmother 6 Paternal grandfather/grandmother 61 Maternal grandfather/grandmother 62 Grandchild 7 Grandson 71 Granddaughter 72 Other relative 8 Male 81 Female 82 Not related 9 Boarder 91 Housemate/ room mate 92 Other non-relative 93 Housing Tenure (H7) Own 1 Owned with mortgage 11 Owned without mortgage 12 Rent 2 Rent paid 21 Occupied without rent 22 Provided by job/military 3 Provided by job 31 Provided by military 32 Education Level (P10) No school completed 1 No school completed 10 Elementary school 2 Preschool/nursery 21 Kindergarten4th grade 22 High school 3 5th8th grade (junior high) 31 9th12th grade (no diploma) 32 High school diploma 33 College/university 4 Some college but no degree 41 Associate degree in college 42 Bachelor's degree 43 Post graduate studies 5 Some graduate school, no degree 51 Master's degree 52 Professional school degree 53 Doctorate degree 54 Disability (P11) Difficulty standing 1 Difficulty standing 10 Difficulty climbing 2 Difficulty climbing 20 Visually impaired/blind 3 Visually impaired/blind 30 Hearing impaired/deaf 4 Hearing impaired/deaf 40 Require wheelchair 5 Require wheelchair 50 Require cane/walker 6 Require cane/walker 60 Other (specify) 9 Other (specify) 90

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Summary of Recommended Standardized Procedures and Guidelines 15 Table 3. (Continued). Variable Primary Category Code Secondary Category Code Race (P12) White (alone) 1 White (alone) 10 Black/African American (alone) 2 Black/African American (alone) 20 American Indian/Alaskan Native 3 American Indian 31 (alone) Alaskan Native 32 Asian (alone) 4 Asian Indian 41 Chinese 42 Filipino 43 Japanese 44 Korean 45 Vietnamese 46 Other Asian 47 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 5 Native Hawaiian 51 (alone) Guamanian or Chamorro 52 Samoan 53 Other Pacific Islander 54 Some other race (alone) 6 Some other race (alone) 60 Two or more races 7 Two or more races 70 Vehicle Body Type Auto 1 Auto 10 (V1) Van 2 Van 20 Recreational vehicle (RV) 3 Recreational vehicle (RV) 30 Utility vehicle 4 Utility vehicle 40 Pick-up truck 5 Pick-up truck 50 Other truck 6 Other truck 60 Motorcycle 7 Motorcycle 70 Other (specify) 9 Other (specify) 90 Vehicle Ownership Household member owned or leased 1 Household member owned or leased 10 (V5) Employer owned or leased 2 Employer owned or leased 20 Other (specify) 3 Other (specify) 30 Trip Purpose (A2) Home 1 Home domestic activity 10 Home paid work 11 Work and work-related 2 Main job 21 Other job 22 Volunteer work and community services 23 Looking for work 24 Education/childcare 3 Attendance at childcare 31 Attendance at school 32 Attendance at college 33 Eating out 4 Restaurant/caf 41 Fast food 42 At friends' home 43 Personal business/medical 5 Availing of/shopping for 51 administrative services Availing of/shopping for 52 professional services Availing of/shopping for 53 government/public services Availing of/shopping for personal 54 services Availing of/shopping for medical 55 and health care services Shopping 6 Purchasing food and household 61 supplies (groceries) Purchasing clothes, shoes, personal items 62 Purchasing household appliances, 63 articles, equipment Purchasing capital goods (cars, houses etc.) 64 Comparison shopping 65 Window shopping 66 Social/recreational 7 Communication/ correspondence 71 Socializing activities 72 Participating in 73 religious/community/cultural events/activities Visiting entertainment and cultural venues 74 Indoor and outdoor sporting activities 75 Games/hobbies/arts/ crafts 76 Print/audio/visual media 77 (continued on next page)

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16 Standardized Procedures for Personal Travel Surveys Table 3. (Continued). Variable Primary Category Code Secondary Category Code Accompanying others/travel related 8 Accompanying children to places 81 Accompanying adults to places 82 Pick up or drop off other people/get 83 picked up or dropped off (private car, car/van pool, shuttle/limousine) Activities related to bus, public 84 transit and group rides (except car/van pool and shuttle/limousine) Change travel mode 85 Other (specify) 9 Not further defined (n.f.d.) 90 Means of Travel (A4) Car/van/truck driver 1 Car driver 11 Van driver 12 Truck driver 13 Car/van/truck passenger 2 Car passenger 21 Van passenger 22 Truck passenger 23 Motorcycle/moped 3 Motorcycle 31 Moped 32 Scooter 33 Bicycle 4 Bicycle 40 Walk/wheelchair 5 Walk 51 Skate/roller skate/ roller board 52 Motorized wheelchair 53 Non-motorized wheelchair 54 Bus/school bus 6 Regular bus 61 Intercity bus 62 Express bus 63 School bus 64 Train 7 Train 71 Trolley/streetcar 72 Taxi/shuttle 8 Taxi 81 Shared-ride taxi/jitney 82 Commuter van/shuttle bus: employer 83 paid Commuter van/shuttle bus: pay fare 84 Dial-a-Ride 85 Shuttle/limousine 86 Other (specify) 9 Other (specify) 90 Fuel Type Gasoline 1 Gasoline 10 Diesel 2 Diesel 20 LPG/LNG 3 LPG/LNG 30 Dual Fuel 4 Dual Fuel 40 Other (specify) 9 Other (specify) 90 Employment Status Full-time 1 3545 hours 11 4655 hours 12 Greater than 56 hours 13 Part-time 2 Less than 20 hours per week 21 Greater than 20 hours per week 22 Retired 3 Retired 31 Semi-retired 32 Full-time homemaker 4 Full-time homemaker 40 Unemployed seeking employment 5 Unemployed seeking employment 50 Unemployed not seeking 6 Unemployed not seeking 60 employment employment Full-time student 7 Full-time student 70 Child not in school/infant*to be 8 Child not in school/infant*to be 80 specified if skip mechanism not in specified if skip mechanism not in place place Volunteer work (unpaid) 9 Volunteer work (unpaid) 90