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18 Standardized Procedures for Personal Travel Surveys Table 5. Recommended schedule of contacts and reminders. Step Day Contact Content Received by Household Type 1 Advance letter Mail Pre-notification letter A week before recruitment (R 7) is scheduled to commence 2 Recruitment (R) Telephone Recruitment interview Recruitment day 3 R+1 Mail Survey package sent out R+3 to R+5 4 Day before diary Telephone Pre-diary day reminder (motivation call) D-1 day (D 1) 5 D+1 Telephone Reminder to return completed survey (motivation D+1 call) 6 D+2 Mail Postcard reminder/reset of diary day to D+7 D+4 to D+6 7 D+6 Telephone Reminder and check on second opportunity for D+6 diary day 8 D+9 Mail Postcard reminder and reset of diary day to D+14 D+11 to D+13 9 D+13 Telephone Reminder and check on third opportunity for diary D+13 day 10 D+15 Mail Re-mailing of survey package and reset of diary D+17 to D+19 day to D+21 11 D+20 Telephone Reminder and check on fourth opportunity for D+20 diary day the activities or travel are reported by someone other than the person who actually performed the activity are referred to as having been reported by "proxy." There is a relatively large body of research that concurs that the number of trips is lower when reported by proxies. Analysis of this issue is reported in detail in Section 5.2 of the Technical Appendix. It is recommended that all surveys, at a minimum, establish the following policies with regard to proxy reporting: 1. For all persons, include a code for whether the activity/travel report was provided directly by the individual conducting the activities or travel, or by a proxy. 2. For persons aged 14 and under, require parental or other adult proxy reporting. 3. For persons aged 15 to 17, permit proxy reporting unless the individual is available to report their activities directly with parental permission. 4. All persons aged 18 or older should be asked directly for their activities or travel. 5. The survey methods report should include the percent of adult respondents (persons aged 18 or older) whose activities or travel were reported by proxies (regardless of whether a completed diary was available), excluding from the denominator persons who were phys- ically or mentally unable to provide direct reporting at the time of retrieval (illness, inca- pacitation, etc.). See also Section 2.7.4. 6. Establish a calling protocol that requires at least one call back attempt to obtain a direct report from each adult household member aged 18 or older. Once sufficient surveys have been conducted using these guidelines, it may be possible to develop factors to adjust for under- or over-reporting by proxies of certain types of trips. 2.2.3 D-4: Complete Household Definition The definition of what is a complete household is important because it determines when the sample size specified for a survey is met. There is considerable variability in what has been used as the definition in past household travel surveys: some surveys specifying that every member of the household must complete travel information and personal details for the household to be considered complete, while others specify that only 50% of household members have to com- plete the survey for the household to be considered complete. There are important trade-offs in this. The more stringent definitions will lead to many households being excluded, especially large