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22 Standardized Procedures for Personal Travel Surveys standardized procedures or guidelines can be recommended in this area. It is suggested, how- ever, as an interim procedure that the opening statement on the telephone should 1. Be as brief as possible; 2. State as early as possible that it is not a marketing call; and 3. Start with the words "Hello, this is __________ . . ." rather than "Hello, my name is _________ . . . ," the latter of which seems to signal that it is probably a marketing call. 2.2.8 D-13: Incentives Incentives are offered in some surveys to induce respondents to complete the survey. Many surveys do not offer incentives, but among those surveys where incentives are offered, consider- able variability in type and magnitude are found. There is considerable difference of opinion among transportation professionals as to whether incentives should be offered. There is also substantial diversity in what is offered for an incen- tive. Incentives have ranged from a gift to a significant payment of money ($10 and more per household, particularly for GPS surveys, where incentives as high as $50 have been offered). Some are offered only to those completing the survey, while others are offered to all potential respondents. The extent of current information about the use of incentives generally and in per- sonal travel surveys particularly is provided in Section 5.8 of the Technical Appendix. Several recommendations are offered for standardized procedures on this topic: 1. Incentives should be offered in all personal travel surveys unless a pilot survey is able to demonstrate clearly that a final response rate in excess of 70% can be achieved without any incentive. 2. Incentives should be offered only as pre-completion incentives--that is, they are offered to all recruited units of the sample and are not offered in return for respondents returning a completed survey. 3. Incentives should be indicated as being provided for completing the survey task, but not conditioned on a return being received. 4. Incentives should be monetary in form except where local laws or ordinances prohibit offering money. In such cases, a small gift should be offered. 5. Monetary incentives should generally be small and on the order of $1$2 per person except in cases where attempts are being made to obtain responses from those who typically fail to respond to a survey. In the latter case, a larger incentive may be worthwhile. 6. Incentives should be offered to each individual and not to the household as an entity. 7. Entry into a sweepstakes, provision of lottery tickets, and other similar forms of incentives are not recommended. The literature does not provide support that such incentives are effective. It is recommended that alternative incentives be tested, whenever possible, in a pilot survey to establish whether a particular population will be responsive to specific incentives. Such tests may compare alternative monetary levels, as well as comparing between a gift and money, although existing tests of gifts versus money have clearly shown the supremacy of money. 2.2.9 D-14: Respondent Burden Respondent burden is both tangible and intangible. In tangible terms, it can be measured as the amount of time, cost, etc., that is involved in a respondent complying with the requests of a survey. It could also be measured in terms of the number of times a respondent is contacted and asked to provide information. The intangible aspects of respondent burden are much less easily measured and may be subsumed under the general title of perceived burden. There is general agreement that efforts should be made to reduce the data collection burden for respondents to travel surveys. There is less agreement as to what constitutes respondent bur-