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Summary of Recommended Standardized Procedures and Guidelines 23 den, and how reductions in burden may be achieved. Respondent burden is examined in Sec- tion 5.9 of the Technical Appendix. It is recommended that an estimate of measured respondent burden be routinely reported as part of any travel survey method documentation. This estimate should include the actual or esti- mated time in minutes for Review of printed materials, including instructions. Recordkeeping (as applicable to survey design). Use of "memory jogger" to record trips. Recording odometer readings from household vehicles. Actual average call time for (as applicable) Recruitment; Reminder; Retrieval; and Other calls (verification, re-contact for incomplete data, odometer readings, etc.). Completing diaries and other requested data (mail-back or Internet). Gathering the completed surveys from responding household members. Mailing the surveys back to the survey firm/sponsoring organization (if applicable). To permit comparisons across surveys, it is recommended that the measured respondent bur- den be reported at the household level, using the average number of persons per household to factor person-level response times to an estimate for the entire household. 2.3 Pilot Surveys and Pretests 2.3.1 P-2: Requirements for Pretests or Pilot Surveys Pretests and pilot surveys are the process of testing various aspects of the survey design, proto- col, instruments, analysis, etc., on a small sample of the population prior to fielding the main sur- vey. The intention of pretests and pilot surveys is to determine whether everything in the intended survey will work and produce the expected results. In some instances, pretests or pilot surveys may be conducted to compare two or more methods for some element of the survey process and to determine which to choose. In other cases, there is no comparison test involved, although it may be anticipated that some refinements to elements of the survey process will result. Further elabo- ration on pretests and pilot surveys can be found in Section 6.1 of the Technical Appendix. It is recommended that the terms pilot survey and pretest be defined as follows: 1. Pilot Survey--a complete run through or dress rehearsal of the entire survey process, including drawing the sample, conducting the survey, coding the data, and performing basic analysis of the data. A pilot survey is conducted on a small sample of the same popu- lation that will be sampled for the main survey. As distinct from a pretest, the pilot survey involves a test of every element of the main survey, conducted in exactly the same way as is planned for the main survey. A pilot survey may also be used to test two or more different survey procedures and compare the results in order to assist in selection of one for the main survey. In such a case, each version to be tested is subjected to every step of the main survey. 2. Pretest--a test of any element, or sequence of elements of a survey, but comprising less than the full survey execution. For example, the instrument may be pretested by having a small subsample of respondents complete the instrument and then reviewing limited aspects of the completed instruments to determine whether any design changes are war- ranted. Any aspect of survey design and implementation may be subjected to a pretest. Pretests may also be used to compare alternatives for an element or elements of a survey. The main distinction between a pretest and a pilot survey is that pretests do not involve testing all aspects of the planned main survey, but may be limited to subsets of the protocol,