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Summary of Recommended Standardized Procedures and Guidelines 27 If non-respondents to household interview surveys tend to travel more than respondents, then providing an additional alternative that permits responding when convenient to the respondent may increase the response rate. Accordingly, providing respondents with online response capabilities is encouraged. 2.4.4 E-5: Caller ID "Caller ID," "Caller Line Identification," and "Caller Display" are different names for the ser- vice provided by many telephone companies that allows the customer to see the telephone num- ber, and sometimes the directory listing, of the person who is calling. With the addition of Call Blocking, telephone customers may automatically block incoming telephone calls that do not permit the display of a telephone number. In light of the general decline in telephone survey response rates, it is incumbent upon legit- imate survey researchers to provide any information that may encourage responses from the full range of households. One of the primary uses of Caller ID is for households to screen out unwanted telephone calls by simply ignoring calls that do not display a known number or identity of the caller. Further information on this is provided in Section 7.4 of the Technical Appendix. It is recommended as a standardized procedure that Caller ID be provided by the entity con- ducting the telephone calls--whether a contracted survey firm, university, or government agency--because existing data indicate that providing any ID at all may assist response rates more than being unrecognized. However, after careful review, it is concluded that there are no standardized procedures that can be recommended regarding Caller ID listings. 2.4.5 E-9: Answering Machines and Repeated Call-Back Requests There are two related issues encountered by every telephone-based survey: first, when an answering machine is reached, does it assist completion rates if a message is left? Second, when a household requests an interviewer call them back at another time, is there a point beyond which repeated call backs do not increase completion rates? Each of these issues is discussed in Section 7.5 of the Technical Appendix. It is recommended that a standardized procedure be adopted that messages be left on answer- ing machines, as follows: 1. When an answering machine is reached on the initial recruitment/screening call, a mes- sage should be left at least once in the call rotation before classifying the number as non- responding. The message should identify the client organization and the nature of the sur- vey and provide a toll-free number for the household to contact should they desire to participate. The message should be short (no more than 15 seconds) and preferably pro- vided by a "live" interviewer as opposed to a recorded message. 2. When an answering machine is reached on a reminder telephone call, a message should always be left. 3. When an answering machine is reached during telephone retrieval of travel information, a message should always be left. It is also recommended that telephone survey protocols include a process for complying with call back requests, whether they occur in the recruitment or retrieval portion of a tele- phone survey. After the fifth request for a call back from the same household, the household should be categorized as a "soft" refusal and therefore eligible for any "soft refusal" conver- sion techniques in use.