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11 TABLE 8 Motorcoach sales, 1991 to 2002 Table 11, larger companies operating more than 100 coaches Year Vehicles Sold have nearly three times as many annual passengers per motor- 1994 1,800 coach, and about twice as many miles per motorcoach, than 1995 2,200 the smallest companies, which operate fewer than 10 coaches. 1996 2,700 This census represents the entire motorcoach population and 1997 3,100 is based on statistical sampling and surveys. 1998 3,700 1999 4,100 2000 3,100 SOURCES AND METHODS 2001 2,700 2002 2,400 American Bus Association, 2000 Motorcoach Census. This Source: METRO magazine, 2004 Fact Book. census was the first major attempt to develop comprehensive benchmarking information on the motorcoach industry in the United States and Canada, separate from historical research Trends in Passenger-Miles that includes transit buses and school buses along with motor- coaches. Findings were compiled from survey responses from Two sources provided data for motorcoach passenger- over 1,000 bus companies and from recent profiles available miles. Table 9 shows the growth in passenger-miles for all from another 1,030 "known" active companies. Mailings were motorcoaches from 2000 to 2002 as reported by METRO mag- sent to approximately 2,900 companies based on lists from azine. Bus tours and charter service are grouped separately industry associations and the last list prepared by the Inter- from line-haul (intercity) service. Table 10 shows the growth state Commerce Commission in June 1987. Information on in passenger-miles for intercity bus travel from 1991 to 1999 the known companies was obtained from the Bus Industry as reported by the Eno Transportation Foundation. Directory and the American Bus Association. Industry bench- marks were then prepared by adding the known companies to an estimate based on the mail survey data and response rate. Distribution of Passengers and Mileage The 2000 Motorcoach Census is available online at: within Industry www.buses.org/industry/ABA-RLBanksReport.pdf. American Bus Association, Destinations magazine, "2001 According to the American Bus Association's 2000 Motor- Industry Survey," August 2001. This survey, compiled from coach Census, scheduled service accounts for half of total responses from 161 bus companies, was designed to help vehicle-miles traveled, and charter service accounts for one- motorcoach companies compare their operations with those third of total mileage. The largest 50 motorcoach companies of other companies. It is available online at: www.buses.org/ carry approximately 56 percent of all passengers. As shown in industry/IndustrySurvey.pdf. Motorcoaches (thousands) 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Source: METRO magazine, 2004 Fact Book. Figure 12. Motorcoach sales, 1991 to 2002. TABLE 9 Motorcoach passenger-miles, 2000 to 2002 Millions of Passenger-Miles Year Bus Tours, Charter Line-Haul Total Tours, Charter, and Line-Haul 2000 19,840 6,230 26,070 2001 20,832 6,542 27,374 2002 21,874 6,869 28,743 Source: METRO magazine, "Passenger Miles in 2000, 2001, 2002."

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12 TABLE 10 Intercity bus passenger-miles, 1991 to 1999 training and education needed, earnings, and expected job Intercity Bus Travel prospects for a wide range of occupations. Detailed estimates Year (Millions of Passenger Miles) for each of the states and metropolitan areas are available by 1991 23,100 specific industry through the occupational employment statis- 1992 22,600 tics. BLS statistics by occupation are available at: www.bls. 1993 24,700 1994 28,100 gov/bls/occupation.htm. 1995 28,100 University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 1996 28,800 Bus Accidents in the United States, 1995 to 1999, July 2001. 1997 30,600 1998 31,700 This study presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in 1999 34,700 traffic accidents, derived from NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Source: Eno Transportation Foundation, Transportation in America 2000. Reporting System and the NASS General Estimates System. For nonfatal injury statistics by year, the study makes no dis- tinction among motorcoaches, transit buses, and school buses. VERIS Consulting, United Motorcoach Association, 2000 However, these figures can be estimated by subtracting the UMA Benchmarking and Operating Ratios Study, Febru- school bus statistics obtained from NHTSA's Traffic Safety ary 2001. Data from this study were compiled from survey Facts from the total bus figure in the University of Michigan responses from 175 motorcoach companies. The study reports study. The report can be ordered from the American Bus operating and balance sheet information by revenue, fleet Association. size, service type, and the top one-third of companies. It can Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Motor Car- be obtained from the United Motorcoach Association. rier Management Information System, 2000. FMCSA oper- U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transporta- ates and maintains the Motor Carrier Management Informa- tion Statistics, Motor Carrier Financial and Operating Statis- tion System (MCMIS). The MCMIS Census File contains tics Products and Reports. These annual and quarterly reports information on interstate commercial motor carriers and intra- present ridership, revenues, and expenses for Class I motor state hazardous material carriers that are subject to the Fed- carriers of passengers (intercity, tour, and public transit bus eral Motor Carrier Safety Regulations and the Hazardous Materials Regulations. Intrastate nonhazardous material car- companies). riers are not captured for all states, but American Trucking The U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Associations, Inc., estimates that the number of intrastate motor Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts series is carriers is roughly equal to the number of interstate motor an annual publication of comprehensive national safety statis- carriers. The database is available online at: http://transtats. tics. The reports draw from NHTSA's two primary data sys- bts.gov/DatabaseInfo.asp?DB_ID=190&DB_URL=Agency tems: the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which _ID=11&Agency_Desc=FMCSA&Subject_ID2=0. began operation in 1975, and the National Automotive Sam- METRO magazine, various issues. METRO magazine cov- pling System's (NASS's) General Estimates System (GES), ers surface public transportation, including motorcoach equip- which began operation in 1988. FARS is a census of all fatal ment and operations. METRO's 2004 Fact Book includes traffic crashes involving motor vehicles on public roadways statistics on motorcoach fleet size, fleet mix, sales, and regis- in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. trations. Other statistics, including passenger-miles and sources GES contains a nationally representative probability sam- of revenues, can be viewed online at: www.metro-maga- ple of all police-reported crashes. This sample is used to zine.com/t_stats2.cfm?words=. estimate national statistics for nonfatal crashes. The Traffic Eno Transportation Foundation, Transportation in Amer- Safety Facts series is available online at: www- ica 2000. This publication provides statistical data on a wide nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-30/ncsa/AvailInf.html#. range of national transportation measures, including eco- Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Hand- nomic impacts, volumes, employment, revenue, and govern- book, 20042005 Edition. The Occupational Outlook Hand- ment expenditures. The historical compendium includes data book describes the nature of the work, working conditions, since 1939. TABLE 11 Annual passengers and mileage per motorcoach, by fleet size owned/operated, 2000 Per Motorcoach Fleet Size Annual Passengers Annual Mileage 100+ 26,392 95,914 50-99 18,014 54,676 25-49 9,138 63,302 10-24 9,305 55,868 <10 8,678 47,050 Source: American Bus Association, 2000 Motorcoach Census.