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21 Percent Change in Purchased Services from Previous Year 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% -1.0% -2.0% 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 School Year Ended Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics. Figure 23. Percentage change from previous year in purchased services for public school bus transportation, 1991 to 2000. TABLE 20 Public school students, total and transported by school bus by year, 1991 to 2000 (Millions) School Year Ended Transported Students Total Students Percentage of Total 1991 22.00 38.43 57.3% 1992 23.17 38.96 59.5% 1993 23.44 39.57 59.2% 1994 23.86 40.15 59.4% 1995 23.69 40.72 58.2% 1996 24.16 41.50 58.2% 1997 24.09 42.26 57.0% 1998 24.34 42.77 56.9% 1999 24.90 43.19 57.7% 2000 24.95 43.81 57.0% Note: Includes district-operated and contractor-operated school buses. Approximately one-third of school buses are operated by school bus contractors. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics. the District of Columbia, for which no mileage was reported Distribution of Passengers within Industry between 1998 and 2002. Partial information was available for the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maine, The two largest school bus contractor firms, Laidlaw Edu- New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Iowa, cation Services and First Student, Inc., accounted for 58,059 and Nevada. For data gaps in these states, data were repeated buses in 2003 with 3.04 million students transported, accord- from the year most recent to the gap. ing to School Bus Fleet magazine. NSTA, using the latest National Center for Education Statistics data for 2000, esti- mates that one-third of students using school buses--about TABLE 21 Estimated school bus route mileage for 46 states, 8.3 million--are transported by contractors. As a result, the 1998 to 2002 top two school bus firms account for an estimated 37 percent of all students transported by school bus contractors. Estimated Route Mileage for 46 States Year (Millions) 1998 3,906 1999 3,863 SOURCES AND METHODS 2000 4,204 2001 4,151 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Motor Carrier 2002 4,242 Management Information System, 2000. FMCSA operates Note: Includes district-operated and contractor-operated school buses. and maintains the Motor Carrier Management Information Approximately one-third of school buses are operated by school bus contractors. System (MCMIS). The MCMIS Census File contains infor- Source: School Bus Fleet magazine, "State-by-State Transportation mation on interstate commercial motor carriers and intrastate Statistics, 19971998 School Year to 20012002 School Year." hazardous material carriers that are subject to the Federal

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22 Route Mileage (Millions) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Note: Includes district-operated and contractor-operated school buses. Approximately one-third of school buses are operated by school bus contractors. Source: School Bus Fleet magazine, "State-by-State Transportation Statistics, 19971998 School Year to 20012002 School Year." Figure 24. Estimated school bus route mileage for 46 states, 1998 to 2002. Motor Carrier Safety Regulations and the Hazardous Mate- much of its data available online at: www.schoolbusfleet. rials Regulations. Intrastate nonhazardous material carriers com/t_inside.cfm?action=research. are not captured for all states, but American Trucking Asso- Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Hand- ciations, Inc., estimates that the number of intrastate motor car- book, 20042005 Edition. The Occupational Outlook Hand- riers is roughly equal to the number of interstate motor carri- book describes the nature of the work, working conditions, ers. The database is available online at: http://transtats.bts. training and education needed, earnings, and expected job gov/DatabaseInfo.asp?DB_ID=190&DB_URL=Agency_ID= prospects for a wide range of occupations. Detailed esti- 11&Agency_Desc=FMCSA&Subject_ID2=0. mates for each of the states and metropolitan areas are avail- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa- able by specific industry through the occupational employ- tion Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics. The Digest of ment statistics. BLS statistics by occupation are available at: Education Statistics is a compilation of educational statistics. The publication includes data from numerous sources and U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traf- draws especially on the results of surveys and activities carried fic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts series. This is out by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), an annual publication of comprehensive national safety sta- such as the Common Core of Data Survey and the Statistics tistics. The reports draw from NHTSA's two primary data of State School Systems. Types of information in the Digest systems: the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), include revenues and expenditures, educational achievement, which began operation in 1975, and the National Automotive and student behavior, as well as statistics on enrollment, teach- Sampling System's General Estimates System (GES), which began operation in 1988. FARS is a census of all fatal traffic ers, schools, and graduates from pre-kindergarten through crashes involving motor vehicles on public roadways in all graduate school. The annual digests for 1995 to 2002 are avail- 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. GES able online at: contains a nationally representative probability sample of National School Transportation Association, The ABC's all police-reported crashes. This sample is used to estimate of School Busing. NSTA is a national industry association national statistics for nonfatal crashes. The Traffic Safety Facts of school bus contractors. Its information guide, The ABC's series is available online at: of School Busing, provides several summary estimates for ments/nrd-30/ncsa/AvailInf.html#. general school bus transportation as well as for school bus National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Report to contractors specifically. The NSTA website is located at: Congress: School Bus Safety Crashworthiness Research. This 2002 study researches the potential use of seat belt restraint School Bus Fleet magazine. This magazine compiles systems on school buses. As part of the report, researchers yearly statistics on the largest contractor bus fleets, the largest used the National Automotive Sampling System's General school district bus fleets, fatalities, school bus sales, bus Estimates System to estimate the number of school bus crashes driver and contractor surveys, and other information relevant by year, which is a statistic not reported in the Traffic Safety to the school bus industry. School Bus Fleet magazine makes Facts series. School bus vehicle types and non-school buses

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23 used as school buses are included in these statistics. The study mail surveys were sent to more than five million firms. Statis- is available at tics for smaller (nonemployer) firms are estimated from data SchoolBus/SBReportFINAL.pdf. obtained by federal agencies, including the Internal Revenue Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census. The economic cen- Service. The subject series reports for the 2002 Economic Cen- sus is conducted every five years and tracks indicators such sus will be released in late 2005. Economic census data are as sales, annual payroll, and number of employees. In 1997, available online at: