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36 CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY COMPARISONS SIZE AND EXTENT data are available to estimate the number of school bus firms operating in each subsegment. Carriers by Size According to the Motor Carrier Management Information SAFETY System (MCMIS) database, which includes all interstate but only selected intrastate firms, the trucking industry is the Table 40 shows a comparison of fatalities, injuries, and largest of the three industries presented in this synthesis, with crashes for the three industries. The fatality data are regarded 612,000 firms owning or operating over 3.5 million trucks and as representing true population totals (all interstate and intra- tractors. The motorcoach industry is second, with fewer than state, for-hire, and private), and the injury and crash data are 9,000 firms owning or operating 76,000 vehicles. The school national estimates based on representative samples. The data bus industry is third, with 3,000 firms owning or operating on motorcoach injuries and crashes include transit buses, and 65,000 buses. The comparative sizes of the three industries are the data on school buses include both school bus districts and shown in Table 36, along with the comparative numbers for school bus contractors, as well as other vehicles used as school the MCMIS for-hire segments only. In terms of fleet size, buses. As a result, the school bus safety statistics are likely to however, the three industry breakdowns are very similar. All be approximately three times as large as the statistics for school three industries are dominated by firms that own or operate bus contractors alone. Further analysis of the Fatality Analy- fewer than a half-dozen vehicles, as shown in Figure 39. sis Reporting System and General Estimates System files may Chapters 2, 3, and 4 compare the MCMIS results with provide additional refinement of this data. national estimates from other organizations. When compar- Fatalities and occupant fatalities can be compared among ing the school bus companies registered in MCMIS against the three industries, as shown in Figures 41 and 42. These national estimates of total firms, only about 20 percent of fatalities are total numbers and do not reflect changes in school bus contractors appear to be registered in MCMIS. vehicle-or passenger-miles traveled. Because the number of fatalities for the motorcoach and school bus industries is rela- tively small compared to the number of fatalities for the truck- ing industry, the motorcoach and school bus indices appear Geographic Distribution more sensitive to year-to-year fluctuations when graphed. The geographic distribution of the three industries is shown in Figure 40. Note that the geographic locations were estab- lished by the MCMIS carrier address, which may or may ECONOMY AND FINANCES not reflect the actual operating region of the company and Revenues and Expenses do not include all intrastate-only firms. The figure includes all firms registered in MCMIS, including both for-hire and Tables 41 and 42 compare operating revenues and expenses private carriers. for the motorcoach and trucking industries, based on Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) datasets from 1994 to 2002. Only about one-third of school bus operations are handled by Carriers by Segment private companies, and data on these companies are not col- lected by BTS or by organizations such as School Bus Fleet The motorcoach, school bus, and trucking industries are magazine, NSTA, and the National School Boards Associa- divided into various segments and subsegments, as shown in tion. Consequently, data for only a single school bus com- Tables 37, 38, and 39. Because the major subsegments of pany could be obtained, based on tax filings with the Securi- each industry have been defined differently, direct compar- ties and Exchange Commission. Dividing operating expenses isons between subsegments are not possible. Moreover, no by operating revenues shows the operating ratio for each indus-

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37 TABLE 36 Comparison of firm and fleet sizes, 2000 Number of Firms Number of Vehicles Owned/Operated Industry All For Hire All For Hire Motorcoach 8,568 5,827 75,595 65,614 School Bus 3,067 621 65,221 50,530 Truck 612,771 289,650 3,505,954 1,978,278 Note: This table excludes 595 firms with equal-sized bus and trucking operations, 82 bus firms with equal-sized motorcoach and school bus operations, and 2,157 bus firms with no vehicle information. Source: FMCSA MCMIS, 2000. try. The higher the operating ratio, expressed in percentages, lion in annual revenue. Of the three, the school bus industry the smaller the industry's profit margin from operations. The depends the most heavily on a single source of revenue (pub- data show that from 1994 to 2001, the average operating ratio lic school contracts). of the nation's largest motorcoach companies was 98 percent, and that of the largest trucking operators was 95 percent. This Driver Qualifications for Employment implies that trucking operations are slightly more profitable than motorcoach operations. Between 1993 and 1997, the Table 43 compares the employment qualifications for average operating ratio of the single bus operator was 84 per- motorcoach, school bus, and truck drivers. All three types of cent. However, this statistic should not be taken to represent drivers generally must obtain a Commercial Driver's License; the industry average. be 21 years of age; pass a physical examination if transport- ing passengers or goods across state lines; submit to random drug and alcohol testing; speak English well enough to read Sources of Revenues road signs; pass an FMCSA written examination; and have no criminal record involving drunk driving, drug use, or hit- Figure 43 describes the sources of revenues for each of the and-run driving. Because of the nature of their work, school three industries using available data. The trucking data only bus and motorcoach drivers must be even-tempered and include for-hire trucking companies with greater than $3 mil- enjoy working with people. 3% 3% 50+ 5% 8% 25-49 5% 7% 10-24 10% 6-9 2-5 51% 1 7% 47% 29% 1% 2% 6% 27% 6% Motorcoach School Bus 51% 34% Trucking Note: Total of 8,568 motorcoach firms, 3,067 school bus firms, and 511,085 trucking firms are represented. This chart excludes 101,686 firms with unknown information, 595 firms with equal-sized bus and trucking operations, 82 bus firms with equal-sized school bus and motorcoach operations, and 2,157 bus firms with no information on types of vehicles operated. Source: FMCSA MCMIS, 2000. Figure 39. Percentage of motorcoach, school bus, and trucking firms by fleet size owned/operated, 2000.

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38 0.02% 0% 0.26% West 4% 19% 0.03% Midwest 1% 12% South 13% Northeast 22% Canada Mexico 18% Other 38% 37% 37% 0.07% 0.68% Motorcoach 3% 14% School Bus 19% 29% 35% Trucking Note: Total of 8,568 motorcoach firms, 3,067 school bus firms, and 511,085 trucking firms are represented. This chart excludes 101,686 firms with unknown information, 595 firms with equal-sized bus and trucking operations, 82 bus firms with equal-sized school bus and motorcoach operations, and 2,157 bus firms with no information on types of vehicles operated. Source: FMCSA MCMIS, 2000. Figure 40. Distribution of motorcoach, school bus, and trucking companies by region, 2000. TABLE 37 Motorcoach industry segments, 2000 Segment Percentage of Companies Offering Service Charter 96% Tour 33% Sightseeing 25% Airport Shuttle 19% Commuter 19% Scheduled 12% Other 7% Source: American Bus Association, 2000 Motorcoach Census. TABLE 38 School bus industry segments, 2000 Segment Subsegment School District Public School Private/Parochial School Local Charter Interurban Charter Special Needs Bus Contractor Firm Public School Private/Parochial School Local Charter Interurban Charter Special Needs

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39 TABLE 39 Truck industry segments, 2000 Segment Percentages of Companies Offering Service Private 52% For Hire 47% Government 1% Other 2% Source: FMCSA MCMIS, 2000. TABLE 40 Comparison of motorcoach, school bus, and truck safety data, 1991 to 2002 Motorcoach School Bus1 Truck Year Fatalities Injuries2 Crashes2 Fatalities Injuries Crashes Fatalities Injuries Crashes Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 1991 46 required required 134 required 22,900 4,821 110,000 330,300 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 1992 45 required required 124 required 21,400 4,462 139,000 376,000 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 1993 35 required required 141 required 27,000 4,856 133,000 397,300 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 1994 25 required required 107 required 23,800 5,144 133,000 460,600 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 1995 30 required required 123 required 28,800 4,918 117,000 377,500 1996 43 19,000 31,300 136 15,000 27,700 5,142 130,000 393800 1997 46 9,000 25,900 131 19,000 28,100 5,398 131,000 437,900 1998 50 14,000 25,600 128 17,000 27,400 5,395 127,000 412,000 1999 66 13,000 33,200 167 18,000 29,800 5,380 142,000 474,900 Further analysis 2000 48 required 27,900 147 20,000 28,100 5,282 140,000 457,000 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 2001 46 required required 141 13,000 required 5,111 131,000 429,800 Further analysis Further analysis Further analysis 2002 53 required required 127 18,000 required 4,897 130,000 434,500 Notes: 1) Includes district-operated and contractor-operated school buses. Includes non-school buses used as school buses. Approximately one-third of school buses are operated by school bus contractors. 2) Includes transit bus data. Source: NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts 2002; University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Bus Accidents in the United States, 1995 to 1999; NHTSA, Report to Congress: School Bus Safety Crashworthiness Research, 2002. Fatalities (Indexed to 1991) 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 School Bus 0.8 0.7 Motorcoach 0.6 0.5 Truck 0.4 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Source: NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts; NHTSA, Report to Congress: School Bus Crashworthiness Research, 2002. Figure 41. Fatality indices for school bus, motorcoach, and large truck-involved crashes, 1991 to 2002.

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40 Fatalities (Indexed to 1996) 12 10 8 School Bus 6 Motorcoach 4 Truck 2 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Source: NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts; NHTSA, Report to Congress: School Bus Crashworthiness Research, 2002. Figure 42. Occupant fatality indices for school bus, motorcoach, and large truck- involved crashes, 1991 to 2002. TABLE 41 Operating revenues and expenses for motorcoach companies Year Number of Carriers Reporting Operating Revenues ($) Operating Expenses ($) Operating Ratio 1994 20 870,353,545 918,521,994 106% 1995 20 917,298,271 899,176,159 98% 1996 17 911,504,145 878,185,221 96% 1997 17 995,893,583 946,783,868 95% 1998 15 998,755,677 947,036,225 95% 1999 14 1,014,134,122 1,013,888,975 100% 2000 12 1,087,594,256 1,034,800,005 95% 2001 12 1,075,601,174 1,039,218,004 97% Average Operating Ratio, 1994 to 2002 98% Note: Intercity regular route carriers, defined as carriers whose revenue from intercity regular routes exceeds revenue from all other types (local, commuter, charter) combined. Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Motor Carrier Financial and Operating Statistics. TABLE 42 Operating revenues and expenses for trucking operators, 1994 to 2002 Year Number of Carriers Reporting Operating Revenues ($) Operating Expenses ($) Operating Ratio 1994 101 27,131,281,000 25,229,687,000 93% 1995 97 44,800,140,000 43,235,595,000 97% 1996 94 45,385,578,000 44,044,274,000 97% 1997 97 48,563,406,000 47,069,248,000 97% 1998 91 51,842,375,000 49,315,626,000 95% 1999 86 56,215,944,000 52,986,464,000 94% 2000 92 63,105,025,000 59,199,688,000 94% 2001 93 61,784,590,000 58,679,756,000 95% Average Operating Ratio, 1994 to 2002 95% Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Motor Carrier Financial and Operating Statistics.

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41 Other 5% Tour 11% Charter 56% Scheduled 25% Other 2% Special Needs 2% Motorcoach Interurban Charter Bus 1% Local Charter Bus 3% Private/Parochial School 3% Public School 89% Other 11% Bulk 2% Refrigerated 4% School Bus Household Goods 5% Tank 2% General Truckload 46% General Less-Than- Truckload 30% For-Hire Trucking Source: United Motorcoach Association, 2000 UMA Benchmarking and Operating Ratios Study (reflects survey responses from 175 motorcoach companies nationwide); Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census; American Trucking Associations, Inc., American Trucking Trends 2003 (dervied from reports filed with the U.S. Department of Transportation by carriers with $3 million or more in annual revenue). Figure 43. Sources of revenues for the motorcoach, school bus, and trucking industries. Driver Compensation ity of rest for long-distance truck drivers is variable, since it is almost always obtained away from home, often in sleeper As shown in Table 44, truck drivers on average earn a berths, either at rest stops or while the vehicle is in motion. higher hourly wage than both school bus drivers and motor- Another way of comparing driver schedules is to classify coach drivers. The school bus data include district drivers as work assignments as short-haul versus long-haul, scheduled well as contractor drivers. (repetitive) versus unscheduled (non-repetitive). As shown in Table 46, drivers of short-haul scheduled shifts can expect a Driver Work Schedules repetitive daily schedule consisting of 6 to 10 hours of duty, usually between 6:00 A.M. and 6:00 P.M., with some work on Table 45 compares typical work schedules of motorcoach, Saturdays but no work on Sundays. Drivers of long-haul school bus, and truck drivers. Generally speaking, school bus scheduled shifts generally are on duty 12 to 15 hours out of a drivers work the fewest hours per week and are the most likely 24-hour day. Substantial layovers at destinations may extend to drive split shifts. School bus drivers and local truck drivers their duty-day, and they typically have one or more days off obtain the most consistent quality of rest, typically returning during the week. Drivers of short-haul, unscheduled shifts home each night. Motorcoach drivers also generally obtain have nonrepetitive schedules on any day of the week, usually consistent quality of rest, either at home or in hotels. The qual- lasting one or two days. Their active duty time each day will

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42 TABLE 43 Comparison of driver qualifications for employment Motorcoach Drivers School Bus Drivers Truck Drivers Obtain a Commercial Driver's Obtain a Commercial Driver's Obtain a Commercial Driver's License License License (if operating a vehicle Pass a physical exam every two Pass a physical exam every two with a GVWR of 26,001 years (if transporting years (if transporting passengers pounds or more or of any size passengers across state lines) across state lines) vehicle transporting Be 21 years of age (if Be 21 years of age (if transporting hazardous material) transporting passengers across passengers across state lines) Pass a physical exam every state lines) Submit to random drug and two years (if engaged in Submit to random drug and alcohol tests interstate commerce) alcohol tests Have no criminal record involving Be 21 years of age (if engaged Have no criminal record drunk driving, drug use, or hit- in interstate commerce) involving drunk driving, drug and-run Submit to random drug and use, or hit-and-run Speak English well enough to read alcohol tests Speak English well enough to road signs Have no criminal record read road signs Pass an FMCSA written exam involving drunk driving, drug use, or hit-and-run Pass an FMCSA written exam Be even-tempered and emotionally Be courteous, even-tempered, stable Speak English well enough to read road signs and have strong customer Be aware of the school system's service skills rules of discipline and conduct Pass an FMCSA written exam Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Truck Drivers and Driver/Sale Workers," and "Bus Drivers," chapters in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 20042005 Edition. TABLE 44 Comparison of driver compensation Driver Regulations Driver Hourly Wage Ranges Motorcoach $10.64$15.15 Table 48 compares the effect of four important FMCSA School Bus $10.77$12.98 regulations on motorcoach, school bus, and truck drivers. Truck $11.48$15.97 Regulations concerning hours of service (HOS), medical stan- Note: Wages are national medians except for the upper school bus driver dards and physical qualifications, drug and alcohol testing, compensation limit, which is an average. Source: American Bus Association, Destinations magazine, "2001 Industry and Commercial Driver's Licenses generally apply to all three Survey"; Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, types of drivers, with the exception of those employed by 20042005 Edition; School Bus Fleet, "2003 Contractor Survey." government-owned operations (such as a public works depart- ment or school district). FMCSA's new HOS regulations, which went into effect in January 2004, apply only to truck vary from 10 to 16 hours. Lastly, drivers of long-haul unsched- drivers, while motorcoach and school bus drivers continue to uled shifts follow nonrepetitive schedules varying in length adhere to HOS regulations in effect since October 1, 2002. but not exceeding 14 or 15 hours of duty within a 24-hour The differences between the old and new HOS are shown in period. The hours within which their duty times occur vary Table 49. from day to day, and they may be called upon to work any day of the week depending upon the demands of the schedule. Operating Costs per Mile Driver Duties Operating costs per mile are not available for the school Table 47 compares the typical duties of motorcoach, school bus industry. As shown in Table 50, operating costs per mile bus, and truck drivers. All three types of drivers are respon- for the trucking industry are about $0.17 higher than those for sible for inspecting their vehicle before starting off for the the motorcoach industry. day's run and for remaining alert to prevent crashes while driv- ing. Some truck drivers perform customer service duties, Vehicle Sales such as taking orders, collecting payments, selling goods, or soliciting new orders. Motorcoach drivers often must interact As shown in Table 51, annual sales of motorcoaches, school with customers and tour guides in order to help make the trip buses, and large trucks increased during the 1990s, then more comfortable and informative, and school bus drivers began to decline toward the end of the decade. Sales of large must maintain order and enforce discipline on the bus. School trucks number in the hundreds of thousands, far exceeding bus drivers have a particular responsibility for passenger sales of the other two vehicle types. In 2002, large truck safety, as young children are often not trained to exercise cau- sales outnumbered school bus sales 101, and motorcoach tion in and around moving vehicles. sales 1681.

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43 TABLE 45 Comparison of driver work schedules Motorcoach Drivers School Bus Drivers Truck Drivers Intercity Scheduled Routes May work 8 to 10 hours per May work up to 70 hours per May work up to 70 hours per day and 40 to 50 hours per week, and up to 14 to 15 week, and 12 to 14 hours per day. week. May drive 7 to 9 hours hours per day. May drive 10 May drive 8 to 10 hours per day. per day. Daily schedule is to 11 hours per day. Usually have at least one full day consistent, driving Daily schedule fluctuates and off-duty, many times have two full approximately three to four is dictated by delivery times, days. hours in the morning; possibly pick-up times, unscheduled Daily schedule is consistent for two hours during the mid-day; delays, team driving, etc. two weeks or more; fluctuation and three to four hours in the Local drivers may start early occurs when routes/schedules are afternoon. Regular work in the morning or late at night changed through bid or schedule is consistent to avoid traffic. reassignment. Unplanned work throughout the school year. Quality of rest for local may occur based on unexpected May take students on field drivers is consistent, since it demand; the less seniority, the trips lasting one to several is almost always obtained at greater the likelihood a driver will days, requiring driving up to home. Quality of rest for be called to work unexpectedly. 10 hours per day and working long-distance truckers is Quality of rest is consistent, being up to 15 hours per day. Field variable, since it is obtained obtained at home, in hotels, or trips will more likely occur in mostly in sleeper berths at terminal facilities. the spring, but can occur at rest stops, or while the any time throughout the vehicle is in motion (team Scheduled Destinations school year. driving). Long-distance May work up to 70 hours per week Quality of rest is consistent, drivers may work in pairs on and up to 15 hours per day. May since it is almost always "sleeper" runs that last for drive up to 10 hours per day. obtained at home, except days or weeks. Length of duty-day may extend as during overnight field trips much as 20 hours. when it is obtained in hotel Daily schedule may fluctuate rooms. based upon extended workday; however, most drivers have consistent daily scheduling. Usually have at least one full day off-duty; many times two full days, although not normally consecutive. Unplanned work may occur based on unexpected demand; the less seniority, the greater the likelihood a driver will be called to work unexpectedly. Quality of rest is consistent, being obtained at home, in hotels, or other facilities. Tour and Charter May work up to 70 hours per week, and up to 15 hours per day. May drive 8 to 10 hours per day. Daily schedule fluctuates and is dictated by group itinerary. During peak demand, may not have a full day off for two to three weeks. During off-peak seasons, work days are significantly reduced. Quality of rest is consistent, being obtained at home or in hotels. Trends in Revenue sented in Table 52, show that since 1991 public school districts have increased their spending on bus services by Revenue data are not available for the motorcoach 26 percent in inflation-adjusted dollars. Meanwhile, large industry, but are available for public school bus contractors for-hire trucking firms saw their annual revenues fall dur- and trucking operators with at least $3 million in annual ing the mid-1990s, then rise 13 percent above their 1991 revenue, except household good carriers. These data, pre- level.

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44 TABLE 46 Comparison of driver schedules, typical hours worked, and types of duties Short-Haul Long-Haul Scheduled Repetitive daily schedule consisting of 6 to 10 Daily schedule consisting of 12 to 15 hours of (Repetitive) hours of duty, usually between 6 A.M. and 6 duty within a 24-hour day. Most have P.M. Some Saturday work; no Sunday work. repetitive duty times. Some have substantial Duties: School bus and shuttle coach layovers at destinations which extend the drivers transport students/passengers along duty-day. Almost all have one or more days defined routes to/from predetermined off during the week. locations. UPS/delivery van drivers pick Duties: Scheduled run bus drivers up and deliver packages of various sizes to transport passengers along defined routes locations within defined geographic areas by to/from predetermined locations. predefined times. LTL/private fleet drivers pick up and deliver trailer-sized loads of goods to/from predetermined locations; assist as needed in loading and unloading goods at pick-up and delivery locations. Wait time for pick up and delivery is usually limited to a few hours. Unscheduled Nonrepetitive schedules on any day of the Nonrepetitive schedules varying in length but (Nonrepetitive) week, usually lasting one to two days. Active not exceeding 14 to 15 hours of duty within a duty time worked each day will vary from 10 24-hour period. Hours within which duty to 16 hours. times occur vary from day to day. Duties Duties: School bus and shuttle coach performed all days of the week; any off-duty drivers transport students/passengers along days determined by demands of schedule. defined routes to/from predetermined Duties: Tour bus driver transport locations; assist in handling luggage and other passengers along defined routes to/from items; assist in accommodating predetermined locations; conduct/narrate students/passengers at stops, layovers, and sightseeing tour while operating bus. destinations. Truckload driver pick up and deliver varying sized loads to receivers/customers on demand; assist as needed in loading and unloading at pick-up and delivery locations. No determination of routes and schedules until load is assigned. Wait time for pick up and delivery will vary, sometimes being in excess of two hours. TABLE 47 Comparison of driver duties Motorcoach Drivers School Bus Drivers Truck Drivers Inspect the bus before leaving the Inspect the bus before leaving the Inspect the truck before leaving terminal or garage. terminal or garage. the terminal or warehouse. Be alert when driving in order to Be alert when driving in order to Make sure cargo is secure. prevent crashes. prevent crashes. Be alert when driving in order to Keep to schedules and adhere to Exercise particular caution when prevent crashes. tour guidelines. children are getting on and off the Load and unload cargo as Interact with customers and tour bus. required. guides as required in order to Maintain order on the bus. Take orders, collect payments, sell help make trip comfortable and Keep to schedules. goods, solicit new orders, or informative. Clean up the interior of the bus. perform other customer service Prepare weekly reports on the duties as required. number of students, trips, work After delivery, complete a report hours, miles, and fuel detailing the trip. consumption. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Truck Drivers and Driver/Sale Workers," and "Bus Drivers," chapters in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 20042005 Edition.

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45 TABLE 48 Comparison of driver regulations affecting motorcoach, school bus, and truck drivers Driver Category FMCSA Regulation Motorcoach Drivers School Bus Drivers Truck Drivers Hours of Service New regulations do not New regulations do not New regulations (in effect (New and Old) apply; old regulations apply; old regulations January 2004) apply to apply to employees of apply to employees of employees of private private companies, but not private companies, but not companies, but not of of government-owned of government-owned government-owned operations operations (public school operations districts) Medical Standards and Applies only to employees Applies only to employees Applies only to employees Physical Qualifications of private companies, not of private companies, not of private companies, not of government-owned of government-owned of government-owned operations operations (public school operations districts) Drug and Alcohol Applies to all drivers of Applies to all drivers of Applies to all drivers of Testing vehicles with a seating vehicles with a seating vehicles with a GVWR of capacity of more than 15 capacity of more than 15 26,001 pounds or more or passengers passengers of any size vehicle transporting hazardous material Commercial Driver's Applies to all drivers of Applies to all drivers of Applies to all drivers of Licenses vehicles with a seating vehicles with a seating vehicles with a GVWR of capacity of more than 15 capacity of more than 15 26,001 pounds or more or passengers passengers of any size vehicle transporting hazardous material Source: FMCSA, U.S. Department of Transportation. TABLE 49 Comparison of FMCSA hours-of-service regulations affecting motorcoach, school bus, and truck drivers Motorcoach Drivers School Bus Drivers Truck Drivers Must comply with the rules in effect Must comply with the rules in effect Must comply with the rules in effect on October 1, 2002. on October 1, 2002. on January 4, 2004. May not drive: May not drive: May not drive: More than 10 hours, following 8 More than 10 hours, following 8 More than 11 hours, following 10 hours off duty hours off duty hours off duty After 15 hours on duty, following After 15 hours on duty, following Beyond the 14th hour after coming 8 hours off duty 8 hours off duty on duty, following 10 hours off After 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 After 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 duty consecutive days consecutive days After 60/70 hours on duty in 7/9 Drivers for government-owned Drivers for government-owned consecutive days operations are exempt. operations (public school districts) Drivers for government-owned are exempt. operations are exempt. Source: FMCSA, U.S. Department of Transportation. TABLE 50 Comparison of operating costs per mile, 2001 Industry Operating Costs per Mile (2001) Motorcoach $1.90 School Bus Further analysis required Truck $2.07 Source: American Bus Association, Destinations magazine, "2001 Industry Survey"; American Trucking Associations, Inc., American Trucking Trends 2003.

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46 TABLE 51 Annual sales of motorcoaches, school buses, and Class III through VIII trucks, 1994 to 2002 Number of Vehicles Sold School Buses Manufacturer Year Motorcoaches (Types A, B, C, and D) Classes IIIVIII Trucks 1994 1,800 35,000 388,100 1995 2,200 36,400 428,100 1996 2,700 37,200 410,800 1997 3,100 37,100 425,900 1998 3,700 37,900 526,900 1999 4,100 42,300 643,600 2000 3,100 43,200 578,100 2001 2,700 38,100 451,500 2002 2,400 40,100 402,200 Source: METRO magazine, 2004 Fact Book; School Bus Fleet magazine, "2002 North American School Bus Sales"; American Trucking Associations, Inc., American Trucking Trends 2003. TABLE 52 Comparison of public school bus and trucking revenue trends, 1991 to 2001 Purchased Services for Revenue for Trucking Firms Public School Bus Transportation with over $3 Million Revenue Year ($ Millions, 2000) ($ Millions, 2001) 1991 4,226 6,637 1992 4,355 6,958 1993 4,476 7,062 1994 4,586 7,027 1995 4,535 6,839 1996 4,654 6,525 1997 4,839 5,937 1998 5,103 5,643 1999 5,321 6,075 2000 5,331 6,475 2001 Further analysis required 7,475 Source: American Trucking Associations, Inc., American Trucking Trends 2003; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics. TABLE 53 Comparison of motorcoach passenger-miles, school bus passengers, and truck ton-miles, 1991 to 2002 Motorcoach Public School Students Passenger-Miles Transported by Bus Truck Ton-Miles Year (Millions) (Millions) (Billions) 1991 23,100 22.00 Further analysis required 1992 22,600 23.17 815 1993 24,700 23.44 861 1994 28,100 23.86 908 1995 28,100 23.69 921 1996 28,800 24.16 972 1997 30,600 24.09 996 1998 31,700 24.34 1,027 1999 34,700 24.90 1,093 2000 26,070 24.95 1,074 2001 27,374 Further analysis required 1,051 2002 28,743 Further analysis required Further analysis required Note: Motorcoach passenger-miles previous to 2000 were obtained from the Eno Transportation Foundation; data from 2000 onwards were obtained from METRO magazine. Source: Eno Transportation Foundation, Transportation in America 2000; METRO magazine, "Passenger Miles in 2000, 2001, 2002"; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics; American Trucking Associations, Inc., American Trucking Trends 2003. Passenger- and Ton-Miles coach passenger-miles are available from different sources before and after 2000, while school bus data are reported in Because of differences in reporting methods, trends in terms of the number of public students transported only. For the passenger- and ton-miles across the three industries are not years reported, the number of students transported increased readily comparable. As shown in Table 53, data on motor- 13 percent, and truck ton-miles increased 29 percent.