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12 two known physiological lull points of every day: 14 PM encouraged to fold the resting needs of their drivers into the and 14 AM). scheduling equation. Caffeine, a mild stimulant, is one of the most commonly used fatigue countermeasures, usually through drinking coffee. Other popular drinks and foods contain a lot of caf- Good Sleeping Environment feine, including cola drinks, chocolate, and tea. Caffeine is widely available and can have the advantage of break- The sleep environment should be quiet and dark, using ing up a fatiguing work routine (e.g., a long, monotonous room-darkening shades if necessary. Earplugs can be helpful drive). Caffeine affects the nervous system within 15 to if there is noise. The temperature of the sleeping room should 20 minutes. be around 65F, and the bed should be used only for sleeping-- The effects include a more rapid heartbeat and increased not for activities such as reading or television watching alertness that may last for 4 to 5 hours. In especially sensitive (Zarcone, 2000). individuals the effects may last up to 10 hours (De Valck and One clear advantage for motorcoach operators in com- Cluydts, 2001). bating fatigue is their access to hotel and motel rooms on a Coffee has the highest caffeine level, followed by tea, regular basis. cola drinks, and chocolate. Over-the-counter cold medica- The McCallum et al. (2003) report makes the following tions also contain caffeine, as do "alertness aids" such as recommendations to drivers seeking restful sleep: NoDoz and Vivarin. The caffeine content of coffee may vary substantially depending on preparation. The irony of To ensure quiet, you should remove any noise sources, espe- cially those that are unpredictable (e.g., pets in the bedroom). caffeine is that although it can aid alertness when a motor- Use of earplugs to reduce traffic noise or other external coach driver is on duty, it may hinder his or her ability to sounds helps many people, as does use of a constant low- sleep once off duty. And large amounts of caffeine raise level noise source such as a fan. Reducing the amount of light one's blood pressure for the period of time the caffeine is in your sleeping area can be done by using black out shades still in the bloodstream. over windows, heavy dark fabric for curtains, or "hurricane shutters" over windows. Some people also use eye shades in areas where there is substantial light leakage (p. 414). Trip Planning COUNTERMEASURES IN THE Trip planning is using knowledge of the length and structure RESEARCH PHASE of a trip to plan rest intervals at particular times and places en route. The limitations on trip planning involve factors that are The countermeasures described in this category show often outside of a driver's immediate control, such as when his promise for reducing fatigue, but generally they are some dis- or her work shift starts, the availability of rest areas, and the tance from practical application and are not available for pace of operations. implementation without the assistance of fatigue research pro- In general, trip planning is an effective approach to start- fessionals. The countermeasures included in this category are, ing work more refreshed, and alleviating fatigue while on the for the most part, technological or medical. job. The primary advantage of trip planning is that motor- Carroll (2004) reports on an FMCSA-sponsored fatigue coach operators can anticipate those times at which they will management technology (FMT) pilot study conducted in be feeling fatigued and do something about it before it low- partnership with Transport Canada and the American Trans- ers performance to unsafe levels. It also provides some struc- portation Research Institute. Although the study focused on ture along the route so drivers will be less likely to overextend the operators of commercial trucks, the findings could rea- themselves. Proper use of trip planning and the associated rest sonably be applied to motorcoach operations as well. intervals will keep drivers from getting dangerously fatigued This most recent study looked at a combination of four dif- and also allow them to plan where and when to sleep for their ferent technologies that tested four different kinds of fatigue main sleep period during multiple-day trips. Trip planning can management. One device was a wristwatch activity monitor be considered both a preventive countermeasure, as well as an that, based on objective information regarding the driver's operational approach (Rosekind et al., 1995). recent sleep history, informs him or her of his or her state of The difficulty of trip planning for motorcoach operators readiness to continue to perform well before requiring addi- lies in the pre-determined schedules within which they must tional sleep. operate. Itineraries are seldom built with the coach driver in The second device, called PERCLOS (PERcent of the mind. Passenger needs, whether individuals traveling point Time Eyelids are CLOSed), is a system for infrared camera to point or tour groups, determine the basic schedule for the monitoring of driver drowsiness. The study was to determine motorcoach operator. He or she must be able to identify if providing objective information about the amount of eye- places to rest and break while meeting the scheduling demands lid drooping could improve driver alertness (Dinges and of the passengers. Motorcoach company managers should be Mallis, 1998).