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13 The third device, a lane-tracking device, provided a sec- does not have adverse side effects unless consumed in very ond measure that presumably also measured driver alertness large quantities (Babkoff and Krueger, 1992). by monitoring the driver's performance in keeping the vehi- Even under the guidance of a physician, many stimulant cle in the center of the driving lane. The fourth technology compounds can have unwanted and even dangerous side was a power steering system for reducing driver workload effects that can affect one's performance and health. These in controlling the truck in tough driving circumstances such effects may include changes in blood pressure and pulse, as driving in cross winds. headaches, irritability, appetite loss, insomnia, nervousness, The results of the study indicate that drivers who are talkativeness, and sweating. Herbal stimulants are unregu- informed frequently about their sleep status will take steps lated, and the effects of many are unknown because of lack to get more sleep; in the study, those drivers who were pro- of proper evaluation. However, it is known that ephedra in vided with feedback from the wristwatch device increased particular is associated with heart attack and stroke and is their sleep duration by 26 minutes a day. The FMCSA study likely to soon be controlled (Gyllenhaal et al., 2000). elicited encouragement from the drivers for researchers and Most stimulants, except caffeine, are not permitted in oper- engineers to continue development of such technologies; ation of public transportation vehicles in the United States and the drivers recommended many improvements to the and many other industrialized nations. Many stimulants have design of the prototype devices tested to make them more a high potential for addiction and abuse because of the rapid user-friendly. euphoria that results from high doses. The use of stimulants At least two viable lane-tracking systems designed to mon- can lead to a cycle of binging and crashing, and long-term itor and inform drivers about their driving performance are abuse can lead to mental and behavioral disorders. Possession being offered to commercial drivers and marketed to auto- and use of controlled substances without a proper physician's motive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Addition- prescription is illegal and can result in fines and jail time. ally, in other exploratory research, technologies such as driver All motorcoach operators are subject to regulations ban- head movement monitoring have also shown promising results. ning use of illegal substances while operating a motor vehi- Companies in Japan have had success in monitoring driver cle. Random drug testing is regularly carried out to cut inputs (i.e., steering, brakes, and throttle) to assess fatigue. down on the use of most known stimulants. Much R&D has been accomplished and now selecting which driver monitoring technologies to employ and further devel- oping them begins to focus on driver-vehicle interface, pack- Sedatives/Hypnotics aging, and generating cost/benefit data that are compelling to fleet buyers. Depending on the specific type of drug class, sedatives can cause changes in the nature of a person's sleep. Generally, the use of sedatives does not change the overall amount of sleep COUNTERMEASURES THAT for an individual. Although some sleeping pills (used only REQUIRE SUPERVISION while under a physician's prescription) can help a driver to obtain needed sleep, they often are accompanied by unwanted The countermeasures described in this section either require side effects. a prescription by a physician (e.g., drugs such as stimulants or Sedatives and hypnotics have the advantage of being hypnotics) or require guidance by a person trained in circadian applicable to a number of situations that might interfere with physiology for best application (e.g., melatonin). Drivers must sleep, such as shift changes, jet lag, or stress-related short- be careful about countermeasures in this category, because term insomnia. The drugs can help to alleviate these short- side effects and dependencies can develop from the use of term problems and be discontinued to preclude the risk of many chemical substances. The countermeasures included in dependency. Under no circumstances should anyone use these this category are medications without the close supervision of a physician. If hypnotics are used for a long period of time, the user Stimulants, may develop a dependence on them, and there often is a Sedatives/hypnotics, "rebound insomnia" in which sleep is slightly worse for 1 or Melatonin, and 2 nights after discontinuing the drug even if it was used for Bright light. only short periods of time. If the drug is a particularly long- acting one, or if the user has high sensitivity, there may be a Stimulants sleep inertia "hangover" effect the next day in which a per- son will feel sluggish after awakening from the drug-induced Stimulants exert a physiological effect on the nervous sys- sleep (Roehrs and Roth, 2000). tem so that the effects of sleep loss can be temporarily reduced. Herbal remedies such as Valerian root, chamomile, kava, Caffeine (discussed in a separate entry) is an example of a and lavender are promoted as sleep aids, but the evidence for stimulant--one that does not require a prescription and that their effectiveness is much less clear.