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15 COUNTERMEASURES SPECIFICALLY USED 5. Provide training on fatigue causes and countermeasures BY THE OVER-THE-ROAD BUS INDUSTRY for bus drivers on a regular basis. 6. Provide bus drivers with skill training in areas such as The focus groups from the 1999 study (Arrowhead Space passenger management and conflict resolution to reduce & Telecommunications, Inc.,1999) also recommended a set daily stress factors. of countermeasures specifically to offset bus operator 7. Provide effective outreach and education for tour group fatigue. The study report lists the following countermea- organizations and the general bus riding public regard- sures: ing regulatory and operational limitations and bus driver 1. Increase minimum off-duty time for drivers to at least fatigue. 10 hours between trips and improve opportunities for 8. Encourage the federal government to regulate the drivers to get better rest during long and overnight motorcoach industry as a separate entity in terms of trips. operations and situations related to driver fatigue. 2. Minimize inverted duty sleep cycles for drivers during 9. Compile relevant data specific to the motorcoach extended tours and trips. industry determining the number of units in operation, 3. Establish "first in/first out" dispatch protocols to mini- miles driven, accidents, and so forth. mize stress and fatigue-producing situations associated 10. Increase and enhance motorcoach federal regulation with dispatch. enforcement. 4. Enhance total compensation packages for drivers to 11. Include tour group operators as responsible parties for attract more quality drivers to the motorcoach indus- compliance with regulations by motorcoach opera- try and to retain them. tors and drivers.