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16 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS Based on the literature review of fatigue issues facing motor- agers and supervisors, was more comprehensive about the coach operators, it was apparent that a number of circumstances policies and procedures of motorcoach companies. This sur- these drivers encountered are unique to their industry and vey, provided as Appendix A, addressed the following issues: profession. These factors include the following: Company processes and strategies used to address and Time with passengers--drivers can spend days (or weeks) combat fatigue (e.g., company training, scheduling, with a tour/charter group; the interaction between the two flexibility, and driver schedules); can lead to unrealistic demands by the passengers. Perceived effects of passengers (e.g., requests for slower An extended workday--tour and charter groups' itiner- or faster driving, staying on schedules, and luggage han- aries typically include stops at tourist attractions, leading dling); to longer days (though usually shorter hours of driving). Typical work/rest cycles and sleeping arrangements for Multiple roles of the driver--sometimes, because of the extended charter/tour trips; and amount of time spent with the passengers, drivers assume Specific countermeasures drivers and companies may several different functions such as tour guide or even trip employ and foster to combat fatigue (e.g., using caf- counselors. feine, listening to the radio, and using advanced tech- Company representative--while hired only to drive, nology devices). some drivers may become the onsite spokesperson for the company's charter and route policies, pricing, etc. The second survey, provided as Appendix B, addressed the Strict scheduling--extended trips with scheduled stops research scientist group. Questions in this survey focused on at different attractions can lead to unrealistic timetables countermeasures and their effectiveness and on company when factoring in weather, traffic conditions, construc- training issues. tion, and other unforeseen delays. SURVEY PROCESS SURVEY PARTICIPANTS The surveys were developed using a commercial, online In order to determine the effect of the aforementioned fac- survey development and processing system. Each survey tors, two constituencies were identified as representative and respondent group member was contacted via email and knowledgeable of motorcoach operators' activities. The first informed of the survey's intent and the URL where the sur- group consisted of motorcoach company representatives who vey could be viewed and completed. were primarily operational and safety managers. These indi- The first respondent group consisted of members of the viduals were seen as having direct experience with both day- Motorcoach Industry Operators and were identified by and to-day and extended motorcoach operations. Emails were coordinated with the American Bus Association, based in sent out requesting participation in the survey. The second Washington, DC. This organization sent an email to all mem- group was composed of research scientists and other trans- bers and advertised the survey in its weekly online newsletter. portation specialists who are active in TRB commercial vehi- The potential respondents included all companies in the United cle and bus operations committees and subcommittees. These States with fleets ranging from just a few motorcoaches to individuals were seen as having first-hand knowledge regard- hundreds as well as companies whose buses are driven both ing the processes, technologies, and interventions that affect regionally and nationally. motorcoach drivers. The second respondent group was composed of members of TRB committees. Respondents were identified and con- SURVEY SCOPE tacted using a listserve maintained by TRB and represents researchers, academics, and government employees. Twenty- To assess the effects of fatigue and its countermeasures, two respondents were in this group. two surveys were developed, one for each of the surveyed Because the response rate of the survey of bus company groups. The first survey, sent to motorcoach company man- managers was low, the research team merged the results of