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6 research beyond Mackie and Miller (1978) specifically HOS regulations and driver rest and fatigue issues. The addressing bus drivers. A similar study in Great Britain research team also identified any techniques that motorcoach (ROSPA, 2001) also reported a lack of reported research on managers, front-line employees, and drivers use to reduce motorcoach operators and fatigue effects. fatigue-related incidences resulting from the irregular on- Putcha, Blower, and Campbell (2002) examined the records duty conditions facing the bus operator. A final objective was of the FARS (Federal Accident Reporting System, a census to identify any current or on-the-horizon technologies that file with data on fatal accidents on U.S. public roads) looking may be appropriate for motorcoach operations to offset the for data on fatal accident in which bus drivers were involved effects of the extended workday and fatigue-inducing envi- during the period 19951999. ronment. The scope of the study included a literature review com- . . . the FARS file identifies the contribution of driver-related plemented by a survey of selected motorcoach companies, factors in an accident. Drowsy, asleep or fatigued is coded as industry associations, insurers of motorcoach companies, a contributing factor for five bus drivers out of a total of 1,483 state driver licensing agencies, private driving schools, and buses involved in fatal accidents over the five year period, 19951999, for an average of one per year. There is only one other organizations. The information sought in the literature case in five years involving a school bus in a fatal accident review and survey permitted the research team to identify and where the driver condition was coded as drowsy, fatigued, or examine: (1) HOS issues in the motorcoach industry, partic- asleep, and no transit bus drivers were coded as fatigued. The ularly the effects of and countermeasures to the extended remaining four fatigued bus drivers were split evenly between workday; (2) similarities and differences in the approach of over-the-road and "other" buses. Overall, 0.3 percent of bus drivers that are involved in fatal accidents are coded as the trucking and motorcoach industries in complying with drowsy, fatigued or asleep (Putcha, Blower, and Campbell HOS regulations; and (3) current or on-the-horizon fatigue et al., 2002, p. 269). management technologies that could assist motorcoach oper- ators in combating driver fatigue. Many of the findings from these activities served as the The approach of the literature review has been to survey basis for the survey questions developed for the current Syn- the large body of fatigue research and then, based on the thesis study as well as the focus of the current literature results of the surveys and other source documents, apply that review. These findings are reviewed in detail in the Results research to motorcoach operations and operators. section of this synthesis. At the end of this synthesis report is a list of the references specifically identified in the report text. However, the authors reviewed many more articles, books, book chapters, technical OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE reports, and presentations than are cited. Many of these lacked the specific kinds of information about either fatigue or motor- The primary objective of this Synthesis was to identify and coach operations necessary to meet directly the objectives of document the unique features of the extended workday that this Synthesis. These documents provide general information typifies motorcoach operations. As a second objective, the about human fatigue and sleep research, and a rich history of researchers reported on industry approaches to increasing the fatigue-related history. Appendix C to this Synthesis contains probability that the industry's customers understand both a bibliographical listing of all these documents.