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50 equipment tires are swept from the pavement surface before This synthesis subscribes to the definitions of QC and opening to traffic. In cases where chip seals fail after a period quality assurance (QA) recommended by TRB (1999). As of months owing either to loss of aggregate or flushing, the such, QA is the "planned and systematic actions necessary to problems may be caused by materials, design, or construction provide confidence that a product or facility will perform (Shuler 1991). satisfactorily in service." Additionally, QC is defined as the "quality assurance actions and considerations necessary to Figures 53 and 54 summarize chip seal construction prac- assess production and construction processes so as to control tices. Their intent is to present this information in a compara- the level of quality being produced in the end product." Both tive manner where it can be easily understood and applied. terms are inherent in all of the best practices identified in this synthesis. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL Special attention was directed toward identifying labora- The success of a chip seal is highly associated with the con- tory and field tests that can be correlated with successful trol implemented over the quality of materials and con- chip sealing practice. The QC section of the survey empha- struction. Constructability reviews during planning, design, sized the requirements that respondents use for ensuring and construction phases improve the quality of only the final conformance of the materials and the construction operation product. The QC measures widely implemented intended to the contract specifications. Table 11 is an indication of for chip seal projects are provided by material testing and some specific chip seal testing methodologies that were ver- inspection forces. ified in the literature review. FIGURE 53 Preventive maintenance chip seal construction practices (adapted from Peshkin et al. 1999).