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85 APPENDIX B Survey Responses INTRODUCTION This appendix furnishes the details of the chip seal survey responses. Tables B1 and B2, a synopsis of North American survey responses by state and province, respectively, are furnished as a quick reference for the reader. The second section of the appendix contains the summary of detailed survey responses on a question-by-question basis rolled up as appropriate for each question. TABLE B1 CHIP SEAL PROGRAM SYNOPSIS BY U.S. STATE Reason to Seal Traffic Design Binders Performance Arizona Distress ADT<2,000 Empirical AC15-TR, CRS-2H Fair Arkansas Wearing Surface ADT<5,000 Asphalt Institute CRS-2P Excellent Alaska Wearing Surface ADT<20,000 Emp./McLeod HFMS-2P, CRS-2P Good California Water Infiltration ADT>20,000 None CRS-2P Good Colorado Wearing Surface ADT>20,000 None HFRS-2P Excellent Connecticut ADT<5,000 None CRS-2 Good Georgia ADT<2,000 None AC20, CRS-2H Good Idaho Skid Resistance ADT<5,000 Mod. Kearby CRS-2P Excellent Indiana None CRS-2P, HFRS-2 Good Kansas Distress ADT<5,000 Empirical CRS-1HP Kentucky Distress None RS-1, RS-2, Unacceptable Louisiana Water Infiltration ADT<5,000 None CRS-2P Maryland CRS-2 Michigan None CRS-2 Minnesota Water Infiltration ADT<20,000 McLeod CRS-2P Good Mississippi Water Infiltration ADT<2,000 None CRS-2P Good Montana Wearing Surface ADT>20,000 Asphalt Institute CRS-2, CRS-2P Good Nebraska Oxidation ADT<2,000 Empirical CRS-2P Fair Nevada Wearing Surface ADT<5,000 Empirical CRS-1,CRS-2, CRS-2H Excellent New Mexico Wearing Surface ADT<2,000 Empirical Polymer Modified Good New York Water Infiltration ADT<2,000 CRS-2,CRS-2P,HFRS-2P North Carolina Various ADT<2,000 None CRS-2P,CRS-2 North Dakota Oxidation Empirical CRS-2P Fair Ohio Distress ADT<2,000 Empirical Polymer Modified Good Oklahoma Distress ADT<5,000 Empirical CRS-2, CRS-2P Excellent Pennsylvania Oxidation ADT<20,000 Own method CRS-2, CRS-2P Good Rhode Island ADT<20,000 None PG 58-28, 20% TR Good South Carolina CRS-2 South Dakota Various Empirical/McLeod CRS-2, HFRS-2 Texas Water Infiltration ADT<20,000 Modified Kearby AC15-P/TR, CRS-2H, Excellent Virginia Age None CRS-2 Fair Washington Distress ADT<2,000 Empirical CRS-2, CRS-2P Excellent Wyoming Water Infiltration ADT<2,000 Empirical CRS-2P, HFRS-2P Good

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86 TABLE B2 CHIP SEAL PROGRAM SYNOPSIS BY CANADIAN PROVINCES Reason to Seal Traffic Design Binders Performance Alberta Wearing Surface McLeod CRS Unacceptable British Columbia Wearing Surface ADT<20,000 McLeod HF150, HF150P Manitoba Water Infiltration ADT<20,000 McLeod HFRS Good New Brunswick Asphalt Institute CRS, HFRS Newfoundland Illumination ADT<2,000 None Polymer Modified Fair Nova Scotia ADT<5,000 None CRS-2P, HF-150S Good Ontario Surface Condition ADT<2,000 Visual (own) CRS-2P, HF-150S Saskatchewan Wearing Surface ADT<20,000 Own Method HFRS, HFRS-2P Good Quebec Wearing Surface ADT<1,000 Asphalt Institute HFRS, HFRS-2P Good Yukon Wearing Surface ADT<2,000 Empirical HFRS Excellent DETAILED SURVEY RESPONSES The following set of tables synopsizes the responses to each question in the chip seal survey. Questions for which a given respondent did not provide a response are denoted by NR. It should be noted that not all responses were complete. However, all responses received to each question are shown. 1. At this time, what proportions of your highway lane miles have chip seals or surface treatments as the wearing course? (All international responses are converted from metric to lane-miles.) Country Total Lane Miles United States 139,713 Canada 39,482 Australia 272,832 New Zealand 71,900 United Kingdom 213,150 2. Do you follow a specific preventive maintenance cycle for chip seals in years? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 17 2 3 0 1 0 No 24 7 1 2 0 1 3. If the answer to Question 2 is Yes, what is the cycle length in years? Averages provided. United New States Canada Australia Zealand South Africa U.K. 5.4 6 10 NR 11 NR 4. What is the typical life span of a chip seal in your agency in years? United New States Canada Australia Zealand South Africa U.K. 5.76 5.33 10 7 12 10

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87 5. What percentage of your chip seal work is done with in-house crews? United New States Canada Australia Zealand South Africa U.K. 54% 35% 15% 0% NR 30% 6. How much chip seal work does your agency do each year? United New States Canada Australia Zealand South Africa U.K. 150 k80 mi 500 k7.5 mi NR NR NR NR 7. Self-rated in-house chip seal performance. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Excellent 15 2 1 2 0 0 Good 18 2 1 0 0 1 Fair 6 0 0 0 0 0 Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unacceptable 1 1 0 0 0 0 NR 7 5 2 0 1 0 8. Self-rated contractor chip seal performance. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Excellent 7 0 1 2 0 0 Good 19 5 1 0 0 1 Fair 8 3 0 0 0 0 Poor 3 0 0 0 0 0 Unacceptable 0 0 0 0 0 0 NR 5 2 2 0 1 0 9. Primary problems with in-house chip seal work. (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Early Aggr. Loss 18 3 0 1 0 0 Aggr. Loss Evenings 4 2 0 0 0 0 Premature Flushing 15 1 1 1 0 0 Aggr. Loss Patches 5 1 0 1 0 1 Flushed Patches 9 2 1 1 0 1 Flushed Intersections 14 2 0 1 0 0

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88 10. Primary problems with contract chip seal work. (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Early Aggr. Loss 25 6 0 1 0 0 Aggr. Loss Evenings 6 3 0 0 0 0 Premature Flushing 13 3 2 2 0 0 Aggr. Loss Patches 1 1 0 0 1 1 Flushed Patches 13 3 1 1 0 1 Flushed Intersections 15 4 0 1 0 0 11. Which approach yields a better chip seal? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. In-House 16 4 0 0 0 0 Contractor 9 2 2 2 0 0 No Difference 8 2 2 0 0 1 12. Does your organization design chip seal projects? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 30 4 3 1 1 1 No 9 5 0 0 0 0 13. Characterize pavement conditions for design. (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Hardness 0 0 4 2 1 1 Sand Patch 0 0 4 2 1 1 Oxidation 9 2 0 1 0 1 Qualitative 13 1 1 0 1 1 14. Reason for chip sealing. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Distress 9 1 0 0 0 0 Water Infiltration 7 2 1 0 0 1 Oxidation 5 0 0 0 0 0 Skid Resistance 2 0 1 1 0 1 Wearing Surface 8 1 0 1 0 0 15. What causes the decision to select a road for a chip seal? Trigger point. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Pavement Condition 13 3 1 0 0 1 Rating Skid Number 4 0 1 0 0 0 Age of Surface 8 2 2 0 0 0 Cracking 12 2 1 0 0 0 Oxidation 8 1 0 0 0 0

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89 16. North American design procedures. United States Canada Kearby/Modified Kearby 2 0 McLeod/Asphalt Institute 3 4 Own Method 5 3 Empirical/Past Experience 10 0 No Design 7 2 17. Design criteria used in design method. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Pavement Condition 29 4 4 2 1 1 Traffic Volume 25 1 4 2 1 1 Percent Trucks 7 1 4 2 1 1 Weather 6 0 4 2 1 1 Source of Binder 2 0 0 0 0 1 Absorption 15 2 4 2 1 1 Turning Movements 11 1 4 2 1 1 Texture 12 0 4 2 1 1 Precoat Condition 4 0 0 0 0 0 Residual Factor 5 0 4 1 0 0 Lanes of Traffic 3 0 0 1 0 0 18. Who performs the chip seal design? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Agency--Design Group 11 1 1 0 0 1 Agency--Construction Group 3 1 1 0 0 0 Agency--Maintenance Group 16 2 2 0 0 0 Design Consultant 1 0 1 1 1 0 Contractor 5 3 4 2 0 1 19. How long has design procedure been used? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Range (yr) 540 120 28 30* 6 30* *Has been continuously improved since original version. 20. How are binder rates determined? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Design 8 2 4 2 1 1 Experience 24 2 0 0 0 0 Contractor 2 2 0 0 0 0 Agency 11 3 0 0 0 0

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90 21. How are aggregate rates determined? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Design 8 2 4 0 1 1 Experience 20 2 0 1 0 0 Contractor 2 2 0 1 0 0 Agency 11 3 0 0 0 0 22. Level of distress on roads that are sealed. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Severe 4 0 1 0 0 0 Moderate 22 4 2 2 1 1 Slight 12 2 1 0 0 0 None 1 1 0 0 0 0 23. Pavement's structure cross-section condition on roads that are sealed. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Excellent 1 0 3 0 0 0 Good 24 3 1 0 1 0 Fair 6 3 0 2 0 1 Poor 2 1 0 0 0 0 24. Adequate number of experienced contractors. Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 18 7 4 2 1 1 1 No 15 2 0 0 0 0 7 25. How many contractors bid on your jobs? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities 13 19 7 2 0 0 0 1 46 13 2 2 0 1 1 7 79 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >10 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 26. Are contractors prequalified? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 11 1 2 1 0 1 1 No 24 8 2 1 1 0 7

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91 27. Warranties on chip seals. Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 6 8 2 1 1 1 5 No 26 1 0 0 0 0 2 28. Typical construction season: Variable by region; generally runs from April through September with southern states run- ning about 1 month longer than northern states. 29. Do you require different aggregatebinder combinations for different highways? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 18 6 3 2 1 1 No 20 4 1 0 0 0 30. If answer to Question 29 is Yes, what differentiates? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. ADT 16 5 2 2 1 1 Urban Areas 4 2 1 0 1 0 Proximity to 2 0 0 0 0 0 Special Aggregate 31. What types of contracts do you use? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Unit Price 30 10 3 2 1 1 Design Build 0 0 0 1 0 1 Lump Sum 2 0 2 2 0 0 32. What is the range of your chip seal projects (miles)? All international responses are converted from kilometers. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Range 4250 830 NR 37.2 40 60600 33. What is the maximum traffic volume on roads on which your agency constructs chip seals? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. ADT < 500 2 1 0 0 0 0 ADT < 1,000 1 1 0 0 0 0 ADT < 2,000 12 2 0 0 0 0 ADT < 5,000 11 2 0 0 0 0 ADT < 20,000 12 3 3 1 0 0 ADT > 20,000 7 0 1 1 1 1

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92 34 and 35. What gradations do you use for your chip seals? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. 5 /8 in./16 mm 4 0 0 2 0 0 1 /2 in./12.5 mm 19 4 0 2 1 0 3 /8 in./10 mm 25 1 4 2 0 0 36. Do you use any special gradations? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 11 2 1 1 1 1 No 25 6 3 0 0 0 37. Do you use different gradations for multiple course seals? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 20 3 2 2 1 1 No 15 5 2 0 0 0 38. Do you use precoated aggregate with asphalt cement chip seals? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 9 0 4 2 1 1 No 31 8 0 0 0 0 Do you use precoated aggregate with emulsion chip seals? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 3 0 0 0 0 0 No 26 8 4 2 1 1 39. Have you ever used synthetic aggregate? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 12 0 1 1 0 1 No 27 8 3 1 1 0 40. What is the typical binder and aggregate cost? Question universally ignored. 41. Types of aggregate used. (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Limestone 19 2 1 0 0 0 Quartzite 6 1 2 1 1 1 Granite 14 4 3 0 0 1 Trap Rock 7 0 2 0 0 1 Sandstone 5 0 0 0 0 1 Natural Gravels 24 7 2 1 0 1

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93 42. Binders typically used. (Check all that apply.) United States Canada Hot Applied Asphalt Cements 3 0 Conventional Emulsions 36 9 Polymer-Modified Emulsion 36 8 High Float Emulsions 6 4 43. How do you select the type of binder? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Climate 11 4 1 2 0 0 Traffic 8 5 0 0 1 0 Season 5 0 0 0 0 0 Experience 27 4 1 0 0 0 Design 2 2 0 0 0 1 44. Do you use modifiers with your binders? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 12 0 1 1 0 1 No 27 8 3 1 1 0 What types of modifiers? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Polymers 34 8 2 2 1 1 Latex 10 1 0 1 1 0 Crumb Rubber 8 0 2 0 1 0 Anti-Stripping 9 5 1 2 0 1 45. Has your agency constructed any geotextile-reinforced seals? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 3 0 4 2 1 1 2 No 37 9 0 0 0 0 6 If yes, have the trials been successful? Counties U.S. and States Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 1 4 2 1 1 2 No 3 0 0 0 0 2

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94 46. Computerized controls on distributors required. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 26 5 2 2 1 1 No 15 5 2 0 0 0 47. Computerized controls on spreaders required. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 15 1 0 1 0 0 No 25 9 4 1 1 1 48 and 49. Rollers considered appropriate for use. (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Pneumatic 36 8 3 2 1 1 Static Steel 0 5 0 1 0 0 Vibratory Steel 2 2 0 0 0 1 Combination 8 2 0 1 0 0 Pneumatic/Steel Rubber-Clad Steel 0 1 2 0 0 1 50. Any proprietary specifications for equipment? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 2 0 0 0 0 0 No 49 9 4 2 1 1 51. Road preparation methods. U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Chip Seal on Fresh Pavement 7 0 1 0 0 0 Crack Sealing 29 6 2 1 0 0 Patch and Level 20 2 3 1 0 1 Texturizing (other) 0 0 1 1 1 0 52. Ambient air temperature specifications. (All metric temperatures converted to degrees Fahrenheit.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Range (F) 4080 min. >50 >60 >50 NR 50 min. 110 max. 95 max.

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95 53. Pavement temperature specifications. (All metric temperatures converted to degrees Fahrenheit.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Range (F) 4085 min. 3241 min. 6068 min. NR 77 min. NR 130140 max. 54. How soon is aggregate spread after binder application? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Time Range (min) Immediate Immediate 110 min All aggregate >5 min >1 min 5 min 5 min spread within 5 min 55. What is the typical time span between aggregate spread and initial rolling? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Time Range (min) Immediate Immediate Immediate NR NR NR 5 min 3 min 56. What is the typical number of pneumatic rollers? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. No. of Rollers 13* 15** NR NR NR NR *Mode of two. **Mode of two; Manitoba requires five. 57. What is the typical number of steel-wheeled rollers? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. No. of Rollers 12* 12** Not Not NR Not allowed Allowed permitted, use rubber clad steel *Twelve state highway agencies don't allow; Caltrans only allows on rubber seals. **Mode of one, allowed by five provinces. 58. Which controls are in place on rolling operations? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. No. of Passes 27 5 3 0 1 0 Patterns 15 2 2 0 0 0 Speed Limits 17 3 3 0 0 1 Weight 17 6 2 0 1 0 Rolling Time (other) 0 0 2 2 0 0 59. What is the typical time span between final rolling and initial brooming? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Time (range) 148 h* Immediate 1 day NR NR NR to 48 h *Consensus seems to be 2 to 3 h.

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96 60. What is the typical number of broom passes? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities One 7 2 0 1 0 0 4 Two 17 4 1 0 0 0 3 Three 11 2 0 1 1 0 2 Four 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Residual stone Only count, similar suction to Montana permitted 61. What traffic control measures are typically required? Check all that apply. Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Reduced 9 9 4 2 1 1 9 Speed Interim 6 6 4 0 1 0 6 Pavement Markings Pilot 8 8 1 0 0 1 8 Vehicles Flaggers 10 10 3 1 0 0 10 Other N.Y. has B.C. Cones moved Highway reduced has traffic around to patrol and speed for control direct traffic on computerized 3 days for 24 h untrafficked areas arrow boards common 62. What is the typical maximum reduced speed allowed? (All metric responses converted to U.S. units.) Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Average (mph) 29 28 NR NR NR 20 25 63. What is the typical time span between final rolling and opening to reduced speed traffic? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Range 16 h 0.548 h 1030 min Immediate 4h 0.5 h 04 h 64. What is the typical time span between final rolling and opening to full speed traffic? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Range 0.572 h 0.548 h 0.548 h 2448 h NR 24 h 02 weeks

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97 65. Do you require a scrub seal or fog seal to be applied on a fresh chip seal? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Yes 8 0 0 0 0 0 2 No 31 9 4 2 1 1 6 66. Who performs the final inspection? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Agency 40 8 3 0 0 1 9 Consultant 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 Contractor 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 How many people perform the inspection? Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Individual 23 6 3 1 0 1 6 Team 16 3 1 1 1 0 1 67. Which of the following tests are performed on your aggregate? (Check all that apply.) Counties U.S. and States Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Cities Percent Fracture 23 9 1 1 0 0 2 Flakiness 9 4 4 1 1 1 3 Decant 5 1 1 0 0 0 4 Anti-Strip 13 5 1 2 0 0 3 Presence of Clay 14 4 0 0 0 0 2 Sodium Sulfate Loss 10 1 1 0 0 1 1 Other LA abrasion LA abrasion ALD Polished Hardness Polished in in in stone and stone value, 8 states 3 provinces 4 responses value durability LA abrasion 68. Do you perform any field tests to monitor the quality of the binder? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 19 3 3 1 1 1 No 21 7 1 1 0 0

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98 69. Do you require calibration of binder spray equipment? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 32 4 4 2 1 1 No 7 5 0 0 0 0 70. Do you require calibration of aggregate spreading equipment? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 28 3 1 0 1 1 No 12 7 3 1 0 0 71. What tolerances are allowed for binder spray and aggregate spread rates? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Binder (range) 10% 10% 5% NR 5% 10% Aggregate (range) 10% 10% 5% NR 5% 10% Question had poor response; therefore, most accurate representation was selected. 72. Beyond calibration of chip spreader and binder distributors, do you perform any other field tests to check material appli- cation rates? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Yes 17 3 2 2 1 1 No 20 7 2 0 0 0 73. If Yes, what is it called? Various. 74. Special quality control tests? Various. 75. What common distresses are observed in your chip seals? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Potholes 4 6 2 0 0 0 Raveling 24 8 1 2 1 1 Bleeding 54 9 4 2 1 1 Corrugation 41 2 1 0 0 0 Cracking 30 5 3 2 0 0 Streaking 43 5 0 1 0 1 Transverse Joints 29 4 0 0 0 0 Longitudinal Joints 17 3 1 0 1 0 76. Which factor is most important in minimizing defects? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Construction Procedure 27 7 1 0 1 0 Design Method 29 0 2 1 0 1 Better Aggregates 3 0 0 0 0 0 Better Binder 4 0 0 0 0 0 Quality Control 13 2 1 0 0 0 Double Seal 14 1 0 0 0 0

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99 77. What is the most common public-user complaint about a chip seal? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Loose Stone 35 7 3 2 1 1 Road Noise 4 2 1 0 0 0 Vehicle Ride 1 0 0 0 0 0 Appearance 3 2 0 0 0 0 78. How would you describe the pavement ride on roads that generally receive a chip seal? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Excellent 5 0 3 0 0 0 Good 24 7 1 1 1 0 Fair 9 3 0 1 0 1 Poor 1 0 0 0 0 0 Very Poor 1 0 0 0 0 0 79. Of your organization's chip seal failures, which of the following was a likely cause? U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Weather 27 7 3 2 1 1 Insufficient Rolling 7 3 1 1 0 0 Improper Binder 21 6 3 2 1 1 Application Rate Improper Aggregate Rate 16 4 1 2 0 0 Aggregate Spread Early 4 0 0 0 0 0 Aggregate Spread Late 11 0 1 1 1 0 Dirty or Dusty Aggregate 22 4 3 2 1 1 Aggregate Gradation 8 0 0 1 0 0 Improper Binder 8 2 0 1 0 0 Viscosity Improper Binder Temp. 3 2 0 2 0 0 80. Which factors are most critical in determining the life of your chip seals? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Original Quality 20 5 2 2 1 0 Traffic 12 5 1 1 1 0 Underlying Structure 18 3 1 2 0 1 Maintenance Spending 6 0 0 0 0 0 Friction Loss 5 0 0 2 Cold Climate 14 7 0 0 0 0 Considerations

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100 81. Which methods do you use to maintain your chip seals? (Check all that apply.) U.S. Canada Australia N.Z. S. Africa U.K. Crack Sealing 28 6 2 2 1 0 Chip Seal Patch 5 3 1 2 1 0 Sanding/Chat 5 0 0 0 0 1 Lime Slurry 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fog Seal 14 0 0 0 1 Local Strengthening 4 2 0 1 1 0 Patching (other) 3 3 3 0 0 0